Congressional Research Service Reports - 56 Matching Results

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H-2A and H-2B Temporary Worker Visas: Policy and Related Issues

Description: This report covers the H-2A agricultural guest worker program and the H-2B nonagricultural guest worker program. It explores the statutory and regulatory provisions that govern each program, focusing in particular on the much-debated labor certification process. It discusses past and present legislative efforts to reform the H-2A and H-2B programs and to create new guest worker visas, and identifies and analyzes key policy considerations to help inform future congressional action.
Date: May 10, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Creation in the Manufacturing Revival

Description: This report examines the current status of the manufacturing sector in the U.S., which is a subject of ongoing interest in Congress. After rebounding from the 2007-09 recession, U.S. manufacturing output has grown little since the second half of 2014 while employment in the U.S. sector has been flat. These trends defy expectations that forces such as higher labor costs, heightened concern about the risk of disruptions to complex supply chains, and the development of inexpensive domestic supplies of natural gas.
Date: May 5, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay Equity: Legislative and Legal Developments

Description: This report begins by presenting data on earnings for male and female workers and by discussing explanations that have been offered for the differences in earnings. It next discusses the major laws directed at eliminating sex-based wage discrimination as well as relevant federal court cases. The report closes with a description of pay equity legislation that has been considered or enacted by Congress in recent years.
Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Feder, Jody & Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Overview of the Employment-Population Ratio

Description: This report provides an overview of the employment-population ratio. It opens with a discussion of its value as a labor market indicator, noting its key features and limitations. This is followed by an examination of long-term and recent trends. The contribution of demographic and economic factors to recent patterns is explored at the close of the report.
Date: May 27, 2015
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Description: Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal government contracts after reincorporating overseas have prompted questions about current and proposed restrictions on contracting with “inverted domestic corporations.” These questions are shaped, in part, by the broader debate over whether such corporations are to be seen as “deserters,” who change their corporate citizenship to avoid paying U.S. taxes, or as evidencing systemic problems in the U.S. tax code. This report provides the answers to 14 frequently asked questions regarding the current restrictions on contracting with inverted domestic corporations, proposed amendments thereto, and the relationship between prohibitions upon contracting with inverted domestic corporations and other provisions of law that restrict dealings with “foreign” contractors.
Date: May 11, 2015
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination in Employment: A Legal Analysis of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)

Description: This report discusses issues surrounding the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would prohibit discrimination based on an individual's actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity by public and private employers in hiring, discharge, compensation, and other terms and conditions of employment.
Date: May 3, 2013
Creator: Jody Feder & Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions

Description: This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unemployment benefits from 1980 to the present. It has five sections which discuss: [1] background information on unemployment compensation (UC) benefits, [2] a definition of a recession and the process of declaring a recession, [3] a summary of the legislative history of federal extensions of unemployment benefits, [4] figures examining the statistics of recessions, and [5] previous methods for financing temporary recession programs.
Date: May 2, 2013
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Taxation of Aliens Working in the United States

Description: This report outlines issues regarding the taxation of aliens since several pieces of current legislation have been introduced that would impose restrictions for claiming child tax credits or for claiming credits and refunds. The report includes an overview of immigration status, resident or nonresident aliens, taxation of income for various classifications, and Social Security and medicare taxes.
Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Labor Relations Statutes: An Overview

Description: This report provides a brief history and overview of the aims of these statutes: the Railway Labor Act (RLA) enacted in 1926, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), and the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute (FSLMRS). It also discusses key statutory provisions for each statute.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Hegji, Alexandra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration of Foreign Nationals with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Degrees

Description: Congress is renewing its interest in facilitating the immigration of foreign professional workers in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields. The STEM workforce is seen by many as a catalyst of U.S. global economic competitiveness and is likewise considered a key element of the legislative options aimed at stimulating economic growth. "STEM visa" is a shorthand for an expedited immigration avenue that enables foreign nationals with graduate degrees in STEM fields to adjust their immigration status to legal permanent residence (LPR) without waiting in the queue of numerically-limited LPR visas.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement starting for the Baby Boomer generation, Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that today's young people have the educational attainment and employment experience needed to become highly skilled workers, contributing taxpayers, and successful participants in civic life. Challenges in the economy and among certain youth populations, however, have heightened concern among policymakers that some young people may not be prepared to fill these roles. This report covers this history and current status of governmental assistance in federal youth employment and job training programs.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Description: The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for immigration-related worksite enforcement, or enforcement of the prohibitions on unauthorized employment in Section 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The INA §274A provisions, sometimes referred to as employer sanctions, make it unlawful for an employer to knowingly hire, recruit or refer for a fee, or continue to employ an alien who is not authorized to be so employed. This report looks at enforcement measures of this act.
Date: May 10, 2012
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Description: Recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have taken numerous actions to promote "insourcing," or the use of government personnel to perform functions that contractors have performed on behalf of federal agencies. Members of the 112th Congress have introduced several measures which seek to ensure that certain contractors have standing to challenge insourcing determinations; would provide for additional review of insourcing determinations that affect small businesses; or could otherwise constrain insourcing initiatives.
Date: May 7, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Maskell, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Description: The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission submitted its final report to the Administration on September 8, 2005. In the report, the commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures. The loss of related jobs, and efforts to replace them and to implement a viable base reuse plan, can pose significant challenges for affected communities. This report explores the potential economic impact of military closures on communities, especially rural communities, which are more heavily affected by such closures and suffer from slower economic recovery times in such instances.
Date: May 2, 2011
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation Spending During the Recession

Description: This report takes an in-depth look at job creation estimates, including the limitations of the methodology often used to derive them and the difficulties associated with developing job estimates for green infrastructure in particular. The report views these topics in the context of the 2007-2008 recession and its aftermath. The report closes with a review of what is known to date about the number of jobs supported by infrastructure spending and other provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, P.L. 111-5).
Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Description: Trafficking in persons (TIP) for the purposes of exploitation is both an international and a domestic crime that involves violations of labor, public health, and human rights standards. This report focuses on human trafficking both internationally and within the United States. The report begins with an overview of human trafficking including a discussion of the definition of human trafficking, the scope of the problem globally, and an examination of the victims. It follows with an analysis of global anti-trafficking efforts by the United States and the international community. The report then focuses on trafficking into and within the United States, examining relief for trafficking victims in the United States and discussing U.S. law enforcement efforts to combat domestic trafficking. The report concludes with an overview of anti-trafficking legislation and an analysis of policy issues related to human trafficking.
Date: May 20, 2010
Creator: Wyler, Liana Sun & Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)

Description: The Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) program provides income support to individuals who become unemployed as a direct result of a major disaster and who are not eligible for regular Unemployment Compensation (UC) benefits. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state's UC agency. This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits.
Date: May 6, 2010
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Shelton, Alison M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State and Local Restrictions on Employing, Renting Property to, or Providing Services for Unauthorized Aliens: Legal Issues and Recent Judicial Developments

Description: This report discusses the constitutional issues raised in relation to state and local laws intended to deter the presence of unauthorized aliens, along with the implications that federal civil rights statutes might have on the implementation and enforcement of measures restricting such persons' ability to obtain employment, housing, or other state and local benefits or services.
Date: May 8, 2009
Creator: Kim, Yule; Feder, Jody & Smith, Alison M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fair Labor Standards Act: Continuing Issues in the Debate

Description: This reports details the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). It focuses on the administration of the act and the interpretation of provisions, which Congress has left to the discretion of the Secretary of Labor. It also considers judicial decisions, which make up a substantial part of wage/hour issues and have an impact upon enforcement of the statute.
Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department