Congressional Research Service Reports - 104 Matching Results

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U.S. Manufacturing in International Perspective

Description: This report is designed to inform the debate over the health of U.S. manufacturing through a series of charts and tables that depict the position of the United States relative to other countries according to various metrics. Understanding which trends in manufacturing reflect factors that may be unique to the United States and which are related to broader changes in technology or consumer preferences may be helpful in formulating policies intended to aid firms or workers engaged in manufacturing activity.
Date: January 18, 2017
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apprenticeship in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about apprenticeship and the federal activities that support this training approach. Apprenticeship is a job training strategy that combines on-the-job training with related instruction, typically provided in a classroom setting.
Date: January 29, 2016
Creator: Collins, Benjamin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporary Professional, Managerial, and Skilled Foreign Workers: Policy and Trends

Description: This report opens with an overview of the policy issues that pertain to foreign workers. It follows with a summary of each of the various visa categories available for temporary professional, managerial, and skilled foreign workers, as well as an analysis of the trends seen with the use of these various visas over the past two decades. This workforce is seen by many as a catalyst of U.S. global economic competitiveness. The challenge central to the policy debate is facilitating the migration of foreign workers without adversely affecting U.S. workers and U.S. students entering the labor market.
Date: January 13, 2016
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sex Trafficking of Children in the United States: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of sex trafficking of children in the United States. It first conceptualizes the issue, discussing the victims and perpetrators involved. It then outlines the federal response to investigating and prosecuting perpetrators as well as providing services to victims. The report concludes with a discussion of select issues concerning the federal response to sex trafficking of minors in the United States.
Date: January 28, 2015
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.; Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L. & Siskin, Alison
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unemployment Insurance: Programs and Benefits

Description: This report describes three kinds of unemployment benefit programs: regular Unemployment Compensation (UC), Extended Benefits (EB), and Emergency Unemployment Compensation (EUC08). The report explains their basic eligibility requirements, benefits, and financing structure.
Date: January 26, 2015
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M. & Isaacs, Katelin P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the minimum wage provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which is the federal legislation that establishes the minumem hourly wage that ust be paid to all covered workers.
Date: January 15, 2015
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Workforce Investment Act and the One-Stop Delivery System

Description: This report provides details of WIA Title I state formula program structure, services, allocation formulas, and performance accountability. In addition, it provides a program overview for national grant programs. It also provides brief overviews of Titles II and IV. Title III of WIA amends the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933, which establishes the Employment Service (ES), to make the ES an integral part of the One-Stop system created by WIA. Because the ES is a central part of the One-Stop system, it is discussed briefly in this report even though it is authorized by separate legislation (Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933).
Date: January 13, 2015
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues related to Free Trade Agreements approved by Congress: (1) those that relate to the FTA provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and (2) those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities. This report does not address other labor issues in the various free trade agreements, including cooperative consultation provisions.
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. It then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional antitrafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising issues that may be helpful for the 113th Congress to consider as it continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Date: January 28, 2014
Creator: Ribando Seelke, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unauthorized Aliens Residing in the United States: Estimates Since 1986

Description: This report presents data estimating since 1986 the number of unauthorized aliens who have been living in the United States. There have been a variety of estimates of the unauthorized resident alien population over this period, sometimes with substantially different results. This report is limited to analyses of the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics and of the American Community Survey (ACS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau so that there are basic standards of comparison over time.
Date: January 23, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Minimum Wage: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the minimum wage provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)that have been amended numerous times since 1938, typically for the purpose of expanding coverage or raising the wage rate.
Date: January 17, 2014
Creator: Bradley, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: This report provides an overview of federal employment programs for vulnerable young people. It begins with a discussion of the current challenges in preparing all youth today for the workforce. The report then provides a chronology of job training and employment programs for at-risk youth that began in the 1930s and were expanded or modified from the 1960s through the 1990s. It goes on to discuss the five youth programs authorized under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), and draws comparisons between these programs. Following this section is a detailed discussion of each of the programs.
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs

Description: This report provides an overview of federal employment programs for vulnerable young people. It begins with a discussion of the current challenges in preparing all youth today for the workforce. The report then provides a chronology of job training and employment programs for at-risk youth that began in the 1930s and were expanded or modified from the 1960s through the 1990s. It goes on to discuss the five youth programs authorized under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA), and draws comparisons between these programs.
Date: January 13, 2014
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bangladesh Apparel Factory Collapse: Background in Brief

Description: This report provides an overview of the recent tragedy in Bangladesh and the Bangladesh economic environment and culture. It also notes the responses to the tragedy, to date, from Congress, the Administration, the ILO, the Bangladesh government, and the private sector.
Date: January 10, 2014
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Rates and Economic Growth

Description: This report summarizes the evidence on the relationship between tax rates and economic growth, referring in a number of cases to more-detailed CRS reports.
Date: January 2, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G. & Marples, Donald J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Labor Enforcement Issues in Free Trade Agreements

Description: This report identifies two types of labor enforcement issues: those that relate to the free trade agreements (FTA) provisions themselves, including their definitions and their enforceability, and those that relate to executive branch responsibilities, such as resource availability and determining dispute settlement case priorities.
Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Increase in Unemployment Since 2007: Is It Cyclical or Structural?

Description: This report assesses the relative magnitudes of cyclical and structural unemployment as they respond to different policy measures. An analysis of changes since 2007 in a variety of labor market indicators across industries and areas finds patterns that strongly suggest most of the increase in the U.S. unemployment rate is cyclical (i.e., due to depressed aggregate demand). Empirical studies suggest that, although structural unemployment has temporarily increased, it accounted for a minority of the rise in the unemployment rate in recent years.
Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vulnerable Youth: Federal Mentoring Programs and Issues

Description: Youth mentoring refers to a relationship between youth—particularly those most at risk of experiencing negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood—and the adults who support and guide them. The origin of the modern youth mentoring concept is credited to the efforts of charity groups that formed during the Progressive era of the early 1900s to provide practical assistance to poor and juvenile justice-involved youth, including help with finding employment. Issues relevant to the federal role in mentoring include the limitations of research on outcomes for mentored youth, the potential need for additional mentors, grantees' challenges in sustaining funding, and the possible discontinuation of federal mentoring funding.
Date: January 20, 2012
Creator: Fernandes-Alcantara, Adrienne L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Analysis of Suspicionless Drug Testing Requirements for the Receipt of Governmental Benefits

Description: This report gives an overview of the issues related to federal or state laws that condition the initial or ongoing receipt of governmental benefits on passing drug tests. These regulations are vulnerable to constitutional challenge, most often due to issues of personal privacy and Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches."
Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Taxation of Unemployment Benefits

Description: Unemployment compensation (UC) benefits have been fully subject to the federal income tax since the passage of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514). Individuals who receive UC benefits during a year may elect to have the federal (and in some cases state) income tax withheld from their benefits. This report provides an overview of the taxation of UC benefits and legislation related to taxing UC benefits.
Date: January 17, 2012
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

Description: Trafficking in persons (TIP) for the purposes of exploitation is believed to be one of the most prolific areas of international criminal activity and is of significant concern to the United States and the international community. This report discusses the global and ongoing problem of TIP in detail, as well as anti-TIP programs and U.S. and international efforts to combat TIP.
Date: January 12, 2012
Creator: Siskin, Alison & Wyler, Liana Sun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Labor Issues

Description: This report examines three labor issues and arguments related to the pending U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement (CFTA; H.R. 5724 and S. 2830): violence against trade unionists; impunity (accountability for or punishment of the perpetrators); and worker rights protections for Colombians.
Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department