Congressional Research Service Reports - 255 Matching Results

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The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues

Description: On November 2, 1995, U.S. banking authorities ordered the Daiwa Bank to close its banking operations in the United States, and a 24-count criminal indictment was issued against it. These actions stem from the bank's admission that Toshihide Iguchi, a rogue trader at its New York branch office, had incurred $1.1 billion in losses over eleven years from trading U.S. Treasury securities and that Daiwa managers had "directed that those losses be concealed" from U.S. regulators.
Date: November 30, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.; Jackson, William D. & Wells, F. Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate

Description: The dollar declined abruptly in value against the yen in the second quarter of 1994, spurring the central banks of seventeen nations to coordinate a series of intervention efforts in the world's currency trading markets. In addition, the dollar's decline sparked discussions of the possible policy moves the United States and other nations might take to stem the fluctuations in the value of the dollar. Economic theory and empirical evidence indicate that the underlying movement of the exchange rate is tied to the long-term, macroeconomic movements of the economy, or to the combined movements of the economies of different countries, such as the United States and Japan. These macroeconomic factors account for at least half of the overall movement of exchange rates.
Date: August 9, 1994
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy

Description: The rise of the multinational corporation and the increased flow of capital across national borders have raised anew the question of how to treat foreign direct investment, both inward and outward. The U.S. government and, increasingly, other governments advocate that, with some exceptions, economic policies should be neutral in the treatment of investment, foreign and domestic, inward and outward. This report discusses the changing view of foreign investment, both nationally and internationally.
Date: February 8, 1994
Creator: Reifman, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Exchange-Rate System: Return to Bretton Woods?

Description: This report focuses on the exchange-rate system set up at Bretton Woods, its breakdown in the 1970s, the current system of managed floating and, finally, proposals to return part or all the way to a more fixed-rate system.
Date: January 12, 1995
Creator: Reifman, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China and the Multilateral Development Banks

Description: Congress is currently considering appropriations for U.S. contributions to the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) as well as separate legislation that would require U.S. representatives to these institutions to oppose all concessional loans to China. This report provides a brief analysis of China’s relationship with the MDBs to highlight some issues and help Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers better understand the context for the current debates in Congress and the multilateral agencies.
Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debt Reduction: Initiatives for the Most Heavily Indebted Poor Countries

Description: This report offers a broad overview of the debate concerning debt reduction for poor developing countries. It profiles the scope and structure of debt and reviews previous debt relief strategies and the current HIPC Initiative. It analyzes and compares competing alternatives endorsed by the Administration, congressional activists, NGOs, and other G-7 governments. Several key issues, such as costs, impact, and conditionality, of pending proposals are also assessed.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

African Development Bank and Fund

Description: The African Development Bank Group, including the Bank itself (AfDB) and its "soft-loan" affiliate, the African Development Fund (AfDF), is a development finance institution based in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States. In the mid-1990s, the Bank faced management problems and difficulties arising from non-performing loans, but reforms launched in 1995 by a new Bank president, Omar Kabbaj, brought new pledges of support from the non-regionals. U.S. contributions to the Bank resumed in FY2000. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: May 12, 2000
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2000 Summit in Brunei

Description: On November 15-16, 2000, the Eighth Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting (summit) was held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. In addition to the APEC summit, President Clinton held bilateral summits with several leaders of APEC countries ­ including China, Russia, Japan, and South Korea. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization. Others are whether provision of fast-track negotiating authority to the President should cover negotiations under APEC and whether APEC should be expanded to address political as well as economic issues.
Date: January 23, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department