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Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements

Description: In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources.
Date: October 21, 1992
Creator: Lyke, Julie & Fletcher, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agreements to Promote Fishery Conservation and Management in International Waters

Description: Declining fish populations threaten an important food source. Natural catastrophes, pollution, habitat destruction, and overfishing contribute to the depletion of fish stocks. Overexploitation of fishery resources often occurs when management allows expanding and increasingly efficient fishing fleets to continue harvesting dwindling supplies. Although prevalent, overexploitation is not universal and its extent varies among areas, species, and fisheries. This report discusses the issue of overfishing and its possible consequences, as well as domestic and international efforts to combat overfishing.
Date: January 5, 1996
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background to the Overthrow of President Aristide

Description: This report provides background information on the violent and authoritarian traditions that have characterized Haiti's political dynamics since Haiti attained independence in 1804. It examines Haiti's difficult path toward democracy after the fall of the Duvalier regime, from numerous short-lived governments until the election of Aristide. Finally, the report also surveys Aristide's rule and his subsequent overthrow by the Haitian military.
Date: October 22, 1993
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bosnian Muslim-Croat Federation: Key to Peace in Bosnia?

Description: The Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina was established in March 1994, with U.S. mediation. It aims to unite areas held by the largely Bosniak (Muslim) pre-war republic government with areas held by Croats. The Bosnian peace agreement, signed in Dayton in November 1995, recognized the Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska as two largely autonomous entities within a weak, but sovereign Bosnia and Hercegovina union. Real political, economic and military integration of Bosniak and Croat-held areas has been slow to materialize. The United States has played a key role in setting up the Federation and in efforts to make it viable. The long term viability of the Federation is open to question, however, due to continued mistrust between the two sides and significant differences in their perceived interests.
Date: June 26, 1998
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes

Description: The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Description: This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use, criteria to consider when determining if sanctions are appropriate, approaches that might be effective, and aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Date: June 5, 1998
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Shuey, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law

Description: This report provides background on the range of actions that might be termed foreign policy sanctions and the events that might necessitate their use. Criteria are offered that legislators might consider to judge when sanctions might be appropriate, approaches that might be effective, aspects of the use of sanctions that are sometimes overlooked or not considered fully. The report provides an uncomplicated "map" of where sanctions policies and options currently lay in U. S. law.
Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Shuey, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Description: This report reviews some of the concerns surrounding the environment work program and other environmental issues. It briefly describes work underway in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and current thinking underlying development of U.S. positions on trade and the environment in the GATT.
Date: February 24, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R. & Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives by the Clinton Administration and Congress

Description: In February 1997, the Clinton Administration submitted the second of five annual reports on the Administration's Comprehensive Trade and Development Policy for Africa as required by section 134 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (House Document 103-3415, Vol. 1.). On April 24, 1997, members of the African Trade and Investment Caucus introduced a bill, H.R. 1432, on U.S.-Africa trade and investment issues. In his State of the Union address in January 1998, President Clinton called on Congress to pass the trade legislation.
Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Dagne, Theodore S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China: U.S. Economic Sanctions

Description: This report presents a history of U.S. economic sanctions imposed against the People's Republic of China for foreign policy reasons since 1949. It highlights sanctions that are currently active and details occasions on which those restrictions have been modified, waived or permanently lifted. The report provides citations for Presidential authority in current law and the Administration's issuance of regulations and administrative orders.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current U.S. Sanctions Against China

Description: In the months following China's 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, both the President and the Congress took a number of initiatives protesting Beijing's actions. These initiatives centered around U.S. concerns related to trade, human rights, and non-proliferation. In intervening years, the United States has periodically imposed, lifted, or waived other sanctions and concluded several trade-related agreements with China relating to these concerns. Those measures that remain in place in 1994 are detailed in the accompanying tables.
Date: August 15, 1994
Creator: Dumbaugh, Kerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enlargement in Central Europe

Description: In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate.
Date: November 10, 1994
Creator: Gallis, Paul E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Economic Sanctions Through 1996

Description: Since the early 1960s, the United States has imposed a range of economic sanctions on Cuba, the most prominent of which is a comprehensive embargo prohibiting trade with Cuba. This Congressional Research Service report first provides an overview of U.S.-Cuba relations and U.S. policy toward Cuba. It then examines the history and current legislative and executive authorities of the various components of U.S. sanctions against Cuba, including aid, trade, and other restrictions.
Date: November 21, 1996
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E. & Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet

Description: The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: McHugh, Lois
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispute Settlement Under the WTO and Trade Problems with Japan

Description: Under the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United States may use the dispute settlement mechanism to resolve certain trade problems with Japan. As compared with the mechanism under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO offers expanded coverage and nearly automatic approval for panel requests and reports.
Date: October 5, 1994
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department