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Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to nuclear cooperation agreements, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. It also addresses several questions regarding the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements related to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress.
Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

Description: This report discusses renewal of the peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC). It focuses on congressional roles in crafting and carrying out the agreement. Such agreements are subject to Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended (AEA, P.L. 95-242, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) and commonly are called "123 agreements."
Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Holt, Mark; Nikitin, Mary Beth D. & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement: Selected Issues for Congress

Description: This report addresses some of the many issues raised by the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), including: those related to monitoring and enforcing the Iran Nuclear Agreement itself, how the sanctions relief provided by the agreement would affect Iran's regional and domestic policies, the implications for regional security, and the potential for the agreement to change the course of U.S.-Iran relations.
Date: August 6, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Description: This report discusses the recent controversy that has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with U.S. statutes and treaties such as the U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT). Congress recently approved additional guidelines concerning the treatment of detainees. The Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006 (P.L. 109- 148), and the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-163) contain identical provisions that (1) require Department of Defense (DOD) personnel to employ United States Army Field Manual guidelines while interrogating detainees, and (2) prohibit the “cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment of persons under the detention, custody, or control of the United States Government.” These provisions, added to the defense appropriations and authorization bills via amendments introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as “the McCain amendment.” This report discusses the McCain amendment, as modified and subsequently enacted into law.
Date: January 24, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report provides background on the agreement negotiated by Iran and six other countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the P5+1) regarding Iran's nuclear program. They have finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, (JCPOA) that attempts to ensure that Iran's nuclear program can be used for purely peaceful purposes, in exchange for a broad suspension of U.S. sanctions and a lifting of those sanctions imposed by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations. This report discusses the agreement and implications for U.S.-Iran relations.
Date: September 9, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reestablishment of Diplomatic Relations with Cuba

Description: This report discusses the decision to reestablish diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and to reopen embassies in their respective capitals (announced July 1, 2015). It briefly describes the U.S.'s new policy approach towards Cuba and the congressional response to the changes.
Date: July 10, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P. & Tiersky, Alex
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

India-U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses on relations between the United States and India, a relationship deepened in the Clinton and G. W. Bush Administrations. The report talks about the continuing U.S. interest in South Asia with a focus on ongoing tensions between India and Pakistan, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, human rights issues, caste-based discrimination, and India's economic expansion.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

Description: This report looks at the relationship between the United States and South Africa. Topics include: foreign policy issues; health (in particular HIV/AIDS) reform; economics and electricity shortages; and corruption in South African politics.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Glass-Steagall Act: Commercial vs. Investment Banking

Description: This report discusses debate over reform of the Nation's financial structure in the 100th Congress includes re-examination of "the separation of banking and commerce." This separation was mandated by the Glass-Steagall Act (part of the Banking Act of 1933); and was carried forward into the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended in 1970 and thereafter. The resulting isolation of banking from securities was designed to (1) maintain the integrity of the banking system; (2) prevent self-dealing and other financial abuses; and (3) limit stock market speculation. By half a century later, the "wall" it created seemed to be crumbling, as bankers created new financial products resembling securities, and securities firms innovated new financial products resembling loans and deposits. The ongoing process of "financial deregulation" has evoked calls for Congress to give depository institutions new powers, especially in the securities field. Financial deregulation in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan has put additional pressure on Congress to re-examine this Act. Concerns over a seemingly fragile system of depository institutions persist, however, tending to place counter-pressure on Congress to maintain the Act.
Date: June 29, 1987
Creator: Jackson, William D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Description: Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.
Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Bite, Vita
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Lord's Resistance Army: The U.S. Response

Description: This report discusses the background and history of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the U.S.'s response. The LRA is a small armed group that originated in northern Uganda in 1987 and is currently operating in remote border areas between the Central African Republic (CAR), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), South Sudan, and Sudan. The LRA's actions--which include massacres, abductions (notoriously of children), sexual assault, and looting--have caused humanitarian suffering and instability.
Date: September 28, 2015
Creator: Arieff, Alexis; Ploch Blanchard, Lauren & Husted, Tomas F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides background on current International Criminal Court (ICC) cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa, including the potential deterrence of future abuses and the potential impact on African peace processes.
Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Arieff, Alexis; Margesson, Rhoda & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2015 Leaders' Summit on U.N. Peacekeeping

Description: This report discusses the outcome of the 2015 Leaders' Summit on U.N. Peacekeeping, which might elevate ongoing congressional interest in several policy issues related to U.N. peacekeeping.
Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Weed, Matthew C. & Blanchfield, Luisa
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turkey: Update on Crisis of Identity and Power

Description: This report discusses the current political situation in Turkey and its relations with Untied States.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the current status of the INF Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It includes a historical overview and summary of the provisions of the INF Treaty and Russia's concerns with U.S. compliance with the treaty and concludes with a discussion of options that the United States might pursue to address its concerns with Russia's activities and options that it might pursue if Russia deploys new INF-range missiles.
Date: October 13, 2015
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Climate Change Negotiations: What to Expect in Paris, December 2015

Description: This report identifies critical issues regarding the expected Paris Agreement and a Decision that would give effect to the Agreement. The Congressional Research Service (CRS) draws on the draft negotiating texts, publicly available reports, and commentaries to suggest likely outcomes.
Date: November 27, 2015
Creator: Leggett, Jane A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report provides background on the agreement negotiated by Iran and six other countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany--collectively known as the P5+1) regarding Iran's nuclear program, and discusses the implications for U.S.-Iran relations.
Date: November 20, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress

Description: This report is divided into three major sections analyzing Cuba's political and economic environment, U.S. policy, and selected issues in U.S.-Cuban relations. A final section of the report provides a listing of bills and resolutions introduced in the 114th Congress.
Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report discusses the recently finalized Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) that attempts to ensure that Iran's nuclear program can be used for purely peaceful purposes, in exchange for a broad suspension of U.S. sanctions and a lifting of those sanctions imposed by the European Union (EU) and the United Nations.
Date: September 29, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses political, social, and economic issues in South Africa, as well as the country's relationship to the United States.
Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

Description: This report discusses the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) requires signatory parties to take measures to end torture within their territorial jurisdiction and to criminalize all acts of torture.
Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nigeria

Description: This report discusses the current political climate of Nigeria and the resulting issues for Congress. Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa, with an estimated 146 million people, is one of the United States government's key strategic partners on the continent.
Date: February 20, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department