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Lawsuits Against State Supporters of Terrorism: An Overview

Description: A 1996 amendment to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) enables American victims of international terrorist acts supported by certain States designated by the State Department as supporters of terrorism - Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and previously Iraq and Libya - to bring suit in U.S. courts to seek monetary damages. This report, which will be updated, provides an overview of these issues and relevant legislation (H.R. 5167).
Date: August 7, 2008
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free Trade Agreements and the WTO Exceptions

Description: World Trade Organization (WTO) Members must grant immediate and unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to the products of other Members with respect to tariffs and other trade matters. Free trade agreements (FTA) are facially inconsistent with this obligation because they grant countries who are party to the agreement the ability to receive more favorable trade benefits than those extended to other trading partners. Due to the prevailing view that such arrangements are trade enhancing, Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) contains a specific exception for FTAs. The growing number of regional trade agreements, however, has made it difficult for the WTO to efficiently monitor the consistency of FTAs with the provided exemption. This report examines this issue.
Date: September 22, 2004
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J. & Tatelman, Todd B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Date: March 22, 2005
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders.
Date: May 9, 2005
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: U.S.-Canada Border Issues

Description: The September 11 terrorist attacks and continued threats of future attacks have directed Congress’s attention to U.S.-Canada border security-related issues. Both countries are striving to balance adequate border security with other issues such as the facilitation of legitimate cross-border travel and commerce, and protecting civil liberties. Congress has taken action (the USA PATRIOT Act, P.L. 107-56; and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002, P.L. 107-173) to increase the number of INS border patrol agents and inspectors at northern ports of entry and to provide these officials with additional technologically upgraded equipment.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border and Transportation Security: Overview of Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides a summary of selected border and transportation security (BTS) concepts and issues that may be of interest to the 109th Congress. It is the product of contributions from CRS staff in the table contained later in this report labeled Key Policy Staff: Border and Transportation Security.
Date: December 17, 2004
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border and Transportation Security: Appropriations for FY2005

Description: This report is a guide to a subset of one of the 13 regular appropriation bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security; and to supplement the information provided in the CRS Department of Homeland Security Appropriations report. This report summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, major issues, funding levels, and legislative activity related to border and transportation security and will be updated as events warrant.
Date: November 5, 2004
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E. & Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. This report outlines the CTBT and related legislation.
Date: August 16, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. This report outlines the CTBT and related legislation.
Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

Description: A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. These treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. Since 1997, the United States has held 22 "subcritical experiments" at the Nevada Test Site, asserting that these experiments do not violate the CTBT because they cannot produce a self-sustaining chain reaction. The Senate rejected the CTBT on October 13, 1999, and the current Administration under President George W. Bush has indicated that it will continue to oppose the CTBT, will continue to adhere to the test moratorium, is considering modifying existing warheads for use against hard and deeply-buried targets, has not ruled out resumed testing, and has no plans to test.
Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Control After START II: Next Steps on the U.S.-Russian Agenda

Description: The United States and Russia signed the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) on January 3, 1993. This report presents the background on the Russian parliament approval of the START II ratification. The report also discusses the linkage between U.S. withdrawal from ABM treaty and Russia’s possible withdrawal from START II. It discusses the alternative approaches for the United States and the future for the U.S.-Russian arms control process.
Date: June 22, 2001
Creator: Woolf, Amy F. & Goldman, Stuart D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Article 98 Agreements and Sanctions on U.S. Foreign Aid to Latin America

Description: This report discusses the so-called “Article 98 agreements”. The article contains a provision that the Bush Administration has sought bilateral agreements worldwide to exempt U.S. citizens from ICC prosecution. In 2002, Congress passed the American Servicemembers’ Protection Act or ASPA (P.L. 107-206, title II), which prohibits military assistance to countries that are party to the ICC and that do not have Article 98 agreements. Some Members of Congress and Bush Administration officials have expressed concerns about the unintended effects of these sanctions on U.S. relations with Latin America. Policymakers are considering some options to mitigate these effects without undermining ASPA or diplomatic efforts to secure Article 98 agreements.
Date: March 30, 2006
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia

Description: After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Date: December 7, 1999
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department