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China and "Falun Gong"

Description: “Falun Gong,” also known as “Falun Dafa,”1 combines an exercise regimen with meditation and moral tenets. The “Falun Gong” movement has led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. On April 25, 1999, an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 adherents assembled in front of Zhongnanhai, the Chinese Communist Party leadership compound, and participated in a silent protest against state repression of their activities. On July 21, 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of the spread of social unrest, outlawed the movement and began to arrest Falun Gong protesters.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DR-CAFTA: Regional Issues

Description: On August 5, 2004, the United States signed the U.S- Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic. DR-CAFTA could have a significant effect on U.S. relations with the region, primarily by establishing a permanent and reciprocal trade preference arrangement among the signatory countries. DR-CAFTA must now be ratified by each country’s legislature and approved by the U.S. Congress before taking effect.
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

Description: Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide.
Date: September 25, 2006
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial

Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO) held its 6th Ministerial summit in Hong Kong from December 13-18, 2005. WTO Ministerials are held every two years to bring together trade ministers from member states, often to make political decisions for the body. Although an original goal of the Ministerial was to agree on a package of modalities (methods by which the round is negotiated) for the ongoing Doha Development Agenda (DDA) round of trade negotiations, this aim was dropped in order to avoid a high-profile failure similar to previous Ministerials at Cancun and Seattle. Rather, members agreed to some modest advancements in agriculture, industrial tariffs, and duty and quota-free access for least developed countries. The final outcome of these negotiations could provide a substantial boost to the world economy, but if the round itself is not completed, there may be repercussions for the WTO as an institution and for the architecture of the world trading system.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jones, Vivian C.; Langton, Danielle J.; Hanrahan, Charles E.; Fletcher, Susan R. et al.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report discusses the recently finalized Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) that attempts to ensure that Iran's nuclear program can be used for purely peaceful purposes, in exchange for a broad suspension of U.S., European Union (EU), and United Nations sanctions.
Date: July 30, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Enforcement within the United States

Description: This report provides an analysis of immigration enforcement within the United States. The report opens with a definition of immigration enforcement, a discussion of the statutory authority to conduct immigration enforcement, and an overview of immigration enforcement related legislation since 1986. It follows with an exposition on the dichotomy of interior and border enforcement. The report then details different aspects of immigration enforcement in the United States including detention and removal, alien smuggling and trafficking, document and benefit fraud, worksite enforcement, inspections at ports of entry, and patrolling the border between ports of entry. The report continues with a discussion of the role of state and local law enforcement in the enforcement of immigration laws. The report then presents a comparative analysis of the resources devoted to divergent immigration enforcement activities. It concludes with a discussion of crosscutting immigration enforcement issues related to the structure of the Department of Homeland Security.
Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Siskin, Alison; Bruno, Andorra; Nuñez-Neto, Blas; Seghetti, Lisa M & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Space Station and the Iran Nonproliferation Act (INA): The Bush Administration's Proposed INA Amendment

Description: The Iran Nonproliferation Act (P.L. 106-178), as originally enacted, prohibited the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from purchasing Russian goods and services for the U.S.-led International Space Station (ISS) unless the President certified that Russia was not proliferating certain technologies to Iran. On July 12, 2005, the Bush Administration submitted to Congress an amendment to allow NASA to purchase goods and services from Russia to support the ISS. That presented a classic policy dilemma. Without access to Russian spacecraft, the U.S. use of the ISS could be extremely limited. Yet Russian entities were continuing proliferation activities relating to missile proliferation according to the Department of State. This report explains the Bush Administration proposal and resulting congressional action.
Date: December 5, 2005
Creator: Smith, Marcia S. & Squassoni, Sharon
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief

Description: This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred.
Date: August 5, 2015
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie & Beth, Richard S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turkey: Selected Foreign Policy Issues and U.S. Views

Description: This report focuses on the foreign policy of Turkey, a long-time valued U.S. NATO ally, and examines the ruling Justice and Development Party's (AKP) recalculation of the country's approach to foreign affairs and its possible effects on relations with the United States. This report surveys Turkish foreign policy issues that are of critical interest to U.S. officials and Members of Congress.
Date: August 29, 2008
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability in Russia's Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus: Recent Developments

Description: This report provides background information on terrorist attacks in Russia's North Caucasus that includes the formerly breakaway Chechnya and other ethnic-based regions, which appeared to increase substantially in 2007-2009. The report discusses impacts of the August 2008 Russia-Georgia conflict and the recent development in the Northern Caucasus.
Date: August 12, 2008
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

Description: This report provides an overview of the North Korean economy, its external economic relations, reforms, and U.S. policy options.
Date: August 26, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K. & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with Russia: Statutory Procedures for Congressional Consideration and Their Implementation

Description: This report sketches the procedures prescribed by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) for congressional action in relation to nuclear cooperation agreements, then summarizes legislative proceedings occurring in relation to the proposed agreement with Russia, beginning with its recent submission. It also addresses several questions regarding the implementation and intent of these statutory requirements related to the proposed agreement with the Russian Federation. Special attention is given to the definition of "days of continuous session" and possible implications of this definition depending on whether or not the requisite period ends before the end of the 110th Congress.
Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

Description: This report discusses renewal of the peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement between the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC). It focuses on congressional roles in crafting and carrying out the agreement. Such agreements are subject to Section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended (AEA, P.L. 95-242, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) and commonly are called "123 agreements."
Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Holt, Mark; Nikitin, Mary Beth D. & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Nuclear Agreement: Selected Issues for Congress

Description: This report addresses some of the many issues raised by the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), including: those related to monitoring and enforcing the Iran Nuclear Agreement itself, how the sanctions relief provided by the agreement would affect Iran's regional and domestic policies, the implications for regional security, and the potential for the agreement to change the course of U.S.-Iran relations.
Date: August 6, 2015
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth & Kerr, Paul K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department