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Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Has It Been Utilized?

Description: Multilateral and bilateral agreements addressing the status of U.S. armed forces abroad are commonly referred to as Status of Force Agreements (SOFAs). SOFAs establish the framework under which military personnel operate in a foreign country. The United States is currently party to more than 100 agreements that may be considered SOFAs. A list of current agreements included at the end of this report is categorized in tables according to the underlying source of authority, if any, for each of the SOFAs.
Date: June 18, 2009
Creator: Mason, R. Chuck
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected International Depreciation Rates by Asset and Country

Description: The depreciation provisions in the U.S. tax system are of recurring interest to Congress. More than 100 bills were introduced in the 109th Congress that addressed some aspect of depreciation. Concerns about the U.S. depreciation system tend to begin with the criticism that updates to the system have not kept pace with technological advancements of the assets for which it is utilized to account. This report provides information on the depreciation systems of selected European Union countries (France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United Kingdom) by presenting depreciation rates for buildings; computers; expensable assets; motor vehicles; patents; plant, equipment, machinery, and tools; and software.
Date: January 30, 2007
Creator: Mast, Brent W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U. N. Development Program: A Fact Sheet

Description: The U.N. Development Program (UNDP) coordinates and provides funding for most U.N. development assistance programs. In FY1994, the U.S. contribution of $116 million made the United States the largest donor, comprising about 12 percent of the agency's budget.
Date: May 10, 1995
Creator: McHugh, Lois
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet

Description: The World Health organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the United Nations system's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO is not an operational agency. It works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: McHugh, Lois
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Health Organization: A Fact Sheet

Description: The World Health Organization (WHO), established in 1948, is the U.N. System's authority on international public health issues. It assists governments in improving national health services and in establishing worldwide standards for foods, chemicals, and biological and pharmaceutical products. WHO concentrates on preventive rather than curative programs, including efforts to eradicate endemic and other widespread diseases, stabilize population growth, improve nutrition, sanitation, and maternal and child care. WHO works through contracts with other agencies and private voluntary organizations.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: During the 105th Congress, the House considered H.R. 901, legislation which would give Congress a role in designating any new U.S. national parks and monuments of world significance added to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. Sponsors of the bill are concerned that designation of a U.S. site to the U.N. list, which is currently done under Executive Branch authority, does not protect the rights of private property owners or the States. The Administration and opponents of the bill argue that the designation has no affect on property rights and does not provide the United Nations with any legal authority over U.S. territory. H.R. 901 passed the House on October 8, 1997. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and H.R. 901. It will be updated as the legislation progresses through the House and Senate. Similar language concerning the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program has become law. For information on that legislation, see CRS Report 96-517 ENR, Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet.
Date: September 19, 1997
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: On July 13, 2000, the House passed H.R. 4811, the FY 2001 Foreign Operations bill, containing language prohibiting the use of any funds in the bill for the United Nations World Heritage Fund. This Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites. On May 20, 1999, the House passed (by voice vote) the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act (H.R. 883), which requires congressional approval to add any additional U.S. national parks and monuments to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO-administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically.
Date: July 17, 2000
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: P.L. 106-429, in which H.R. 5526, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs appropriations act for 2001 was referenced, contained language prohibiting funding from this bill for the United Nations World Heritage Fund. This Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites. On May 20, 1999, the House passed (by voice vote) the American Land Sovereignty Protection Act (H.R. 883), which requires congressional approval to add any additional U.S. national parks and monuments to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO-administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically.
Date: November 13, 2000
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: On March 6, 2001, Congressman Don Young introduced H.R. 883, the American Land Sovereignty Act. H.R. 883 requires congressional approval to add any lands owned by the United States to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO-administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. In related legislation, P.L. 106-429, in which H.R. 5526, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs appropriations act for 2001 was referenced, contained language prohibiting funding from this bill for the United Nations World Heritage Fund. The World Heritage Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically.
Date: April 24, 2001
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State

Description: This report discusses the formation of the Islamic State. Some 60 nations and partner organizations agreed to participate, contributing either military forces or resources (or both) to the campaign. In Brussels in December 2014, these 60 partners agreed to organize themselves along five "lines of effort," with at least two countries in the lead for each.
Date: November 18, 2015
Creator: McInnis, Kathleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State

Description: This report discusses the formation of the Islamic State. Some 60 nations and partner organizations agreed to participate, contributing either military forces or resources (or both) to the campaign. In Brussels in December 2014, these 60 partners agreed to organize themselves along five "lines of effort," with at least two countries in the lead for each.
Date: August 24, 2016
Creator: McInnis, Kathleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

Description: This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States.
Date: January 8, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing U.S. Agricultural Exports to Cuba

Description: This report discusses a new policy approach toward Cuba that, in part, seeks to reduce the role of long-standing U.S. sanctions on commercial relations with Cuba while also promoting greater engagement and normal relations with the island nation.
Date: June 24, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TPP: American Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement

Description: This report identifies four considerations about the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement that are particularly relevant for U.S. food and agriculture. It includes a partial snapshot of some of the higher-profile improvements in market access for agricultural products in the agreement, a summary of selected provisions beyond market access that are of interest to food and agriculture, a brief overview of industry reactions to the agreement, and a review of what would need to occur for the agreement to enter into force for the United States.
Date: August 30, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism

Description: This report provides an overview of the Muslim separatist movement in China’s northwestern Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China’s attempts to stifle activities which it considers terrorism, and implications for U.S. policy. Some analysts suggest that the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism may make it difficult to pressure the Chinese government on human rights and religious freedoms, particularly as they relate to Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.
Date: December 17, 2001
Creator: McNeal, Dewardric L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism

Description: This report provides an overview of the Muslim separatist movement in China’s northwestern Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China’s attempts to stifle activities which it considers terrorism, and implications for U.S. policy. Some analysts suggest that the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism may make it difficult to pressure the Chinese government on human rights and religious freedoms, particularly as they relate to Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.
Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: McNeal, Dewardric L. & Dumbaugh, Kerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Pros and Cons

Description: The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) would ban all nuclear explosions. President Clinton signed it in 1996 and transmitted it to the Senate in 1997. The Senate rejected it in 1999. To enter into force, 44 named nations, including the United States, must ratify the treaty. The Bush Administration opposes ratification but has maintained a moratorium on nuclear testing begun in 1992. This report presents pros and cons of key arguments: the treaty’s implications for nuclear nonproliferation, for maintaining and developing nuclear weapons, for the value of nuclear weapons, and for maintaining U.S. nuclear advantage; monitoring issues; and potential consequences of resuming testing.
Date: June 28, 2005
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Testing and Comprehensive Test Ban: Chronology Starting September 1992

Description: The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans "any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion." It was opened for signature in September 1996. In September 1997, President Clinton submitted it to the Senate, which rejected it in October 1999. The Bush Administration has not requested Senate consideration of the treaty. This report details actions on nuclear testing and the treaty starting with the most recent U.S. test in September 1992.
Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department