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The World Food Summit

Description: Governments participating in the 1996 World Food Summit will examine how to deal with world hunger and malnutrition and achieve the goal of food security for all. There is broad agreement on the desirability of the Summit's goal, but controversy has developed over such issues as the relationship of trade liberalization and food security, the advisability of declaring a legal right to food, the link between population stabilization and reproductive health and food security, and responsibility within the UN system for Summit follow-up.
Date: November 6, 1996
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bosnia: Civil Implementation of the Peace Agreement

Description: Since Dayton Peace Accords, the civilian side of peace implementation has been challenged by the scope of the tasks, and by the lack of commitment demonstrated by the Bosnian parties to various aspects of the peace agreement. In addition, issues such as International Framework for peace implementation, formation of governmental institution, election, civil police task force and displaced persons are discussed in this report.
Date: January 12, 1998
Creator: Kim, Julie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A UN Rapid Reaction Force

Description: This report, completed in June 1995, discusses the content and context of the January 1995 proposal by then-United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that U.N. Member States consider the creation of a special rapid reaction force to perform U.N. peacekeeping operations. It contains brief background information on similar proposals and a description of the current U.N. "standby forces" system. It reviews the concerns and issues raised by the Boutros-Ghali proposal, including political acceptability, financing, and the problems of force design and operation. It concludes with an analysis of the strategic, budgetary, political and military implications for the United States. This report will not be updated.
Date: June 29, 1995
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Description: During the 105th Congress, the House considered H.R. 901, legislation which would give Congress a role in designating any new U.S. national parks and monuments of world significance added to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. Sponsors of the bill are concerned that designation of a U.S. site to the U.N. list, which is currently done under Executive Branch authority, does not protect the rights of private property owners or the States. The Administration and opponents of the bill argue that the designation has no affect on property rights and does not provide the United Nations with any legal authority over U.S. territory. H.R. 901 passed the House on October 8, 1997. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and H.R. 901. It will be updated as the legislation progresses through the House and Senate. Similar language concerning the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program has become law. For information on that legislation, see CRS Report 96-517 ENR, Biosphere Reserves: Fact Sheet.
Date: September 19, 1997
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APEC and Free Trade in the Asia Pacific

Description: This report discusses the summit held by President Bill Clinton and other leaders of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) on November 19, 1995. The report discusses the primary reason for the summit, an Action Agenda intended to lead to free and open trade and investment among its members. The report also discusses how APEC countries were divided on certain issues going into this summit.
Date: November 14, 1995
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Free Trade and Other Issues

Description: As a result of an initiative by Australia in 1989, the United States joined with eleven other Asia/Pacific nations in creating APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation organization. This report discusses the annual Ministerial Meeting of APEC in Seattle, held from November 17 - 19, 1993.
Date: November 10, 1993
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Description: This report gives an overview of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, which was intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials by American corporations. It includes information about the original legislation, amendments in 1988, and amendments in 1998 that brought the legislation into conformance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's agreement on bribery.
Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drug Certification of Mexico in 1999: Arguments For and Against Congressional Resolutions of Disapproval

Description: This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton’s February 26, 1999 certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.1 These resolutions (H.J.Res. 35--Bachus, and H.J.Res. 43--Mica and Gilman) would disapprove the President’s certification, but would permit him to avoid withholding of assistance to Mexico if he determined that vital national interests required such assistance.
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Description: Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six "greenhouse gases." This report discusses the major provisions of the Kyoto Protocol.
Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Description: This report discusses the ways to reduce emissions of six greenhouses gases after the Kyoto meeting on Global Climate Change. Projecting the reductions that would be required if the U.S. were to ratify the treaty is difficult. While emissions of CO are fairly well established and account for 2 about 85% of total carbon equivalent emissions, emissions of the other gases, especially N O, are more uncertain.
Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Description: This report discusses legislation and issues relating to global climate change, some legislation and some FY1999 appropriations bills were used as vehicles for explicit congressional direction to the executive branch about possible "back door" implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Description: This report presents an analysis of the potential impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy demand. The analysis focuses on 27 common end-uses — light duty vehicles, residential space heating, industrial direct process heat, etc. — that describe the way energy is used in the United States
Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indonesia: U.S. Relations With the Indonesian Military

Description: This report describes the history and the issues involved in the longstanding differences between Congress and the executive branch over U.S. policy toward the Indonesian military (ABRI). The report describes two past episodes when these differences broke out: the period of Indonesian radicalism under President Sukarno in the early 1960s and the initial years of the Indonesian military occupation of East Timor in the late 1970s. It outlines the different views of the Indonesian military between its congressional critics and executive branch officials who have promoted close U.S. relations with it.
Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Niksch, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Indonesia "Summit" in 1994

Description: This report discusses the Ministerial and Leaders' Meetings of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, set to be held in Indonesia. APEC is a consultative body with membership of seventeen Pacific Basin economies that includes both China and Taiwan. The body is working toward trade liberalization (but not a free-trade area) in the most dynamic economic region of the world.
Date: March 16, 1994
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Solar Summit: Launching the World Renewable Energy Program

Description: The World Solar Summit and proposed World Solar Program 1996-2005 address energy problems through increased use of renewable energy technologies. The World Solar Commission will host the World Solar Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, on September 16 and 17, 1996, and it will direct the World Solar Program 1996-2005. At the Summit, the Commission is expected to adopt a World Plan ofAction and a number of Strategic Projects. The proposed World Plan of Action includes a selection of high-priority renewable energy projects at the national or regional level to be implemented between 1996 and 2005.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep Seabed Mining: U.S. Interests and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea

Description: On July 29, 1994, the United States signed the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. This agreement substantially reforms the seabed mining provisions of the 1982 Convention, which the United States found objectionable. In signing the Agreement, President Clinton accepted provisional application of it which enables the United States to participate in the International Seabed Authority (ISA) and its organs and bodies. On November 16, 1994, the U.N. Law of the Sea Convention entered into force without accession by the United States.The treaty document was referred to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations late in the 103d Congress and awaits committee action in the 104th Congress.
Date: April 7, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol and whether the United States is now legally bound by the Protocol, the legal implications of signing it, whether it could be implemented as an executive agreement without submission to the Senate, and whether the Protocol could be used as the legal basis for regulation of emissions even prior to ratification.
Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department