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European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States

Description: This report discusses U.S. and European assessments of and responses to the foreign fighter phenomenon. It focuses on government policies primarily in Western European countries and analyzes EU measures to counter the foreign fighter threat given the EU's largely open internal borders and that 23 EU member states belong to the U.S. Visa Waiver Program.
Date: April 27, 2015
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Belkin, Paul; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Humud, Carla E. & Mix, Derek E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The "Islamic State" Crisis and U.S. Policy

Description: This report provides background and current information on the Islamic State, a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that has expanded its control over areas of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria since 2013. The report also examines possible U.S. policy options in the wake of increasing international outrage at the Islamic States' brutality and apparent disregard for typical human rights conventions.
Date: September 10, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Humud, Carla E.; Weed, Matthew C.; Margesson, Rhoda & Tiersky, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq Crisis and U.S. Policy

Description: This report analyzes the offensive in northern and central Iraq led by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, aka ISIS) -- a Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group -- with a discussion of the offensive's implications, the U.S. response, and related issues.
Date: June 20, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth; Humud, Carla E.; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Margesson, Rhoda & Tiersky, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: Iraq's political system is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions. This infighting-and the belief that holding political power may mean the difference between life and death for the various political communities-significantly delayed agreement on a new government that was to be selected following the March 7, 2010, national elections for the Council of Representatives (COR, parliament). With U.S. diplomatic help, on November 10, 2010, major ethnic and sectarian factions agreed on a framework for a new government, breaking the long deadlock. The agreement, under which Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki is serving a second term, was implemented when a broad-based cabinet was confirmed on December 21, 2010.
Date: May 18, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Description: This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight.
Date: January 21, 2011
Creator: Mason, Chuck R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran-Iraq Relations

Description: This report provides background information on Iran's support to armed groups and Iranian political influence and specifically discusses the relationship between Iran and Iraq.
Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: This report discusses the current political and social climate of Iraq, specifically in regards to the influence of the U.S. military presence over recent years. This report addresses planned and possible future efforts under the Obama Administration, including the scheduled gradual troops withdrawal. This report also discusses the continued tensions between various Iraqi sociocultural groups.
Date: August 31, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Description: This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight.
Date: July 13, 2009
Creator: Mason, Chuck R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process. The Iraqi government is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition rather than violence, but sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting still remain. This report discusses issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and also discusses the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections. The report also addresses the Obama Administration's plan to reduce the U.S. troop presence in Iraq by August 2010 and briefly addresses the Iranian influence in Iraq.
Date: June 2, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Description: This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight.
Date: April 24, 2009
Creator: Mason, Chuck R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Policies on Iraq: CRS Experts

Description: The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to Iraq. Policy areas identified include: U.S. policies on Iraq; governance in Iraq and U.S. military issues; refugees, internally displaced persons, and humanitarian assistance; prospects for Iraq's economy; resource and funding requirements; and the international context--the regional political and security environment.
Date: April 6, 2009
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the major issues facing the Iraqi Kurds. The Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy, demands, and ambitions are causing friction with Christian and other minorities in the north, Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and other Arab leaders of Iraq, neighboring Turkey, and Iran. The U.S. ability to keep these tensions contained could wane as U.S. forces, as planned, draw down from Iraq over the next three years.
Date: January 8, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Iraw Withdrawal/Status of Forces Agreement: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Description: This report begins by discussing the historical legal framework governing U.S. military operations in Iraq. The report then provides a general background as to the contents of agreements traditionally considered Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). Finally, the report discusses specific aspects of the SOFA, highlighting issues that may require continued congressional oversight.
Date: December 12, 2008
Creator: Mason, Chuck R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department