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United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Description: This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President’s request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann & Nakamura, Kennon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.- Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations

Description: This report examines Thailand’s economy and trade orientation, the scope and significance of the U.S.-Thai commercial relationship, and the likely top issues in the negotiations. The report concludes with a short summary of the Congressional role and interest in the FTA.
Date: September 1, 2004
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J. & Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

START II Debate in the Russian Duma: Issues and Prospects

Description: The Russian Duma, the lower house of the Russian Parliament approved ratification of the START II Treaty on April 14, 2000, after 7 years of debate and dissension. (The United States Senate approved ratification of the treaty in January 1996.) This report describes key concerns raised by Members of the Duma during their discussions of START II. These include concerns with treaty provisions, such as its ban on multiple warhead ICBMs and its warhead "downloading" provisions, and concerns with Russia's ability to maintain and finance its strategic nuclear forces in the future.
Date: April 17, 2000
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness

Description: The potential of terrorist attacks against agricultural targets (agroterrorism) is increasingly recognized as a national security threat, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. This report focuses primarily on biological weapons (rather than chemical weapons) because biological weapons generally are considered the more potent agroterrorism threat. This report also focuses more on the threat of agroterrorism against agricultural production, rather than on food processing and distribution, although the latter is discussed.
Date: March 12, 2007
Creator: Monke, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

Description: A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and the 110th Congress is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace in the changing world environment. This report serves as a tracking report for action by Congress on United Nations peacekeeping.
Date: August 21, 2007
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

Description: This report focuses on current U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary-General, selected groups of member states, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations.
Date: November 24, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations Reform: U.S. Policy and International Perspectives

Description: This report focuses on current U.N. reform efforts and priorities from the perspective of several key actors, including the U.S. government, the U.N. Secretary General, selected groups of member states, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and a cross-section of groups tasked with addressing U.N. reform. It also examines congressional actions related to U.N. reform, as well as future policy considerations.
Date: January 22, 2007
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
Date: September 12, 2005
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ukraine’s Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy

Description: In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine’s new President, after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime’s electoral fraud, in what has been dubbed the “Orange Revolution,” after Yushchenko’s campaign color. The “Orange Revolution” has sparked a great deal of interest in Congress and elsewhere. This report examines the current political climate in Ukraine and policy issues for the U.S.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean

Description: This report describes the nature and scope of the problem of trafficking in persons in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report then describes U.S. efforts to deal with trafficking in persons in the region, as well as discusses the successes and failures of some recent country and regional anti-trafficking efforts. The report concludes by raising several issues for policy consideration that may be helpful as the 109th Congress continues to address human trafficking as part of its authorization, appropriations, and oversight activities.
Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for International Affairs

Description: Congress approved an FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764) during the week of December 17, 2007, that included some emergency supplemental funding for international affairs requested by the White House. This report analyzes the international affairs portion of the request and tracks related legislative activity.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Veillette, Connie; Epstein, Susan B.; Margesson, Rhoda & Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extradition To and From the United States: Overview of the Law and Recent Treaties

Description: “Extradition” is the formal surrender of a person by a State to another State for prosecution or punishment. Extradition to or from the United States is a creature of treaty. The United States has extradition treaties with over a hundred of the nations of the world. International terrorism and drug trafficking have made extradition an increasingly important law enforcement tool. This report is a brief overview of federal law in the area and of the adjustments in recent treaties to make them more responsive to American law enforcement interests.
Date: September 30, 2003
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Description: This report discusses U.S. policy responses to the current political climate in Iran. Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of almost 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran’s regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region.
Date: April 25, 2007
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

Description: This report summarizes many issues raised in Congressional debates on the future of U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction assistance. However, it first reviews the history of these programs, describing their origins in 1991, their expansion and evolution during the 1990s, and the changes in their direction during the first two years of the Bush Administration. The report also provides a broad summary of many of the program areas and projects supported by U.S. funding.
Date: February 23, 2007
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: Economic Sanctions

Description: U.S. economic sanctions are imposed against North Korea for five primary reasons: (1) North Korea is seen as posing a threat to U.S. national security; (2) North Korea is designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor or supporter of international terrorism; (3) North Korea is a Marxist-Leninist state, with a Communist government; (4) North Korea has been found by the State Department to have engaged in proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) North Korea has been found by the President to have detonated a nuclear explosive device. This paper explains the U.S. economic sanctions currently in place, and summarizes recent events as they relate to the potential application of additional restrictions.
Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organization of American States: A Primer

Description: This report provides a background on the Organization of American States (OAS), which is an international organization based in Washington, D.C., comprised of 35 Western Hemisphere states. The OAS works to promote democracy, protect human rights, preserve security, expand trade, and address cross-cutting issues of hemispheric concern.
Date: December 20, 2005
Creator: Ribando, Clare
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Middle East Peace Talks

Description: This report discusses the Middle East peace talks, including the new peace process with the most recent developments,and the war against terrorism.
Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Description: To provide an idea of the nature and scope of changes in trade competitiveness between the CBERA countries and Mexico that have resulted from the implementation of the NAFTA, this report describes the relevant preferential or special tariff treatments, as applicable. The aspects of trade policy that apply generally to all (or most) U.S. trading partners (e.g., most-favored-nation/normal-trade-relations status, or production-sharing provisions) are not included in any detail.
Date: January 12, 2005
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Criminal Court Cases in Africa: Status and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides background on current International Criminal Court (ICC) cases and examines issues raised by the ICC's actions in Africa, including the potential deterrence of future abuses and the potential impact on African peace processes.
Date: September 12, 2008
Creator: Arieff, Alexis; Margesson, Rhoda & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Financial Crisis: The Global Dimension with Implications for U.S. Policy

Description: This report examines the global impact of the financial crisis and resulting challenges, moving forward. The crisis exposed fundamental weaknesses in financial systems worldwide, and despite coordinated easing of monetary policy by governments and trillions of dollars in intervention by governments and the International Monetary Fund, the crisis continues.
Date: November 10, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.; Weiss, Martin A.; Jackson, James K.; Dolven, Ben; Morrison, Wayne M.; Cooper, William H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Israeli-Arab Negotiations: Background, Conflicts, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses issues related to peace in the Middle East, including post-Gulf War negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; U.S. interest in these and continuing negotiations and peacetalks between Middle Eastern countries; and the role of the U.S., the U.N., the European Union, and Russia in Middle Eastern relations.
Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department