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European Union Enlargement

Description: The European Union (EU) has long viewed the enlargement process as an extraordinary opportunity to promote political stability and economic prosperity in Europe. U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have long backed EU enlargement, believing that it serves U.S. interests by advancing democracy and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. Some U.S. officials are concerned that "enlargement fatigue" as well as the EU's ongoing financial crisis could hinder EU expansion. The status of EU enlargement and its implications for both the EU itself and U.S.-EU relations may be of interest to the second session of the 112th Congress.
Date: April 4, 2012
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Western Sahara

Description: This report discusses how Morocco and the independence-seeking Popular Front for the Liberation of Saqiat al Hamra and Rio de Oro (Polisario) have been vying for control of the Western Sahara, a former Spanish territory, since the 1970s. The report discusses recent settlement attempts, as well as how the Western Sahara issue has affected Algerian-Moroccan bilaterial relations, Moroccan relations with the African Union, and regional cooperation on economic and security issues. The report also discusses the United States' involvement in and stance on the issue.
Date: April 5, 2012
Creator: Arieff, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crisis In Mali

Description: This report discusses the West African country of Mali that faces multiple overlapping crises. The country’s political leadership has been uncertain and disputed since a military coup on March 22, 2012, overthrew a democratically elected government in the capital, Bamako.
Date: August 16, 2012
Creator: Arieff, Alexis & Johnson, Kelly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Libya: Transition and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses the revolution and post-conflict transition in Libya. The crisis was triggered in mid-February 2011 by a chain of events in Benghazi and other eastern cities that quickly spiraled out of Qadhafi's control and resulted in his death. A July election marked a shift from the appointed interim government and may provide more democratic legitimacy and better decision making. The report also looks at the military and economic state of the country, including human rights, Islam and politics, and Libya's oil asses.
Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conflict Minerals in Central Africa: U.S. and International Responses

Description: This report discusses how Congress has focused on ways to help end or mitigate the effects of conflicts and human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), including several hearingw which have become law. The main issue is related to "conflict minerals," the so-called “3TGs”: ores of tantalum and niobium, tin, tungsten, and gold, and their derivatives.
Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Cook, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Japan's Possible Entry Into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications

Description: This report discusses the effects of the possible entry of Japan to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations. The TPP issue presents both risks and opportunities for the United States and Japan. On the one hand, it could reinvigorate an economic relationship that has remained steady but stagnant, by forcing the two countries to address long-standing, difficult issues, and allowing them to raise their relationship to a higher level. On the other hand, failure to do so could indicate that the underlying problems are too fundamental to overcome and could set back the relationship.
Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H. & Manyin, Mark E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement

Description: This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy.
Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Dolven, Ben; Margesson, Rhoda & Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law

Description: Crime is ordinarily proscribed, tried, and punished according to the laws of the place where it occurs. American criminal law applies beyond the geographical confines of the United States, however, under certain limited circumstances. A surprising number of federal criminal statutes have extraterritorial application, but prosecutions have been few. This may be because when extraterritorial criminal jurisdiction does exist, practical and legal complications, and sometimes diplomatic considerations, may counsel against its exercise.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State- Foreign Operations legislation. This report focuses on only the accounts funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, but provides appropriations figures for the entire international affairs (Function 150) budget in Appendix E.
Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Description: Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Description: Report that discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Topics include similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
Date: November 21, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: Globalization and technological innovation have fostered the expansion of both legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders as well as throughout cyberspace. U.S. law enforcement has increasingly relied on intelligence-led policing, enhanced interagency cooperation, and technological implementation to confront 21st century crime. Issues for Congress are how it can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime. It may also examine whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Interplay of Borders, Turf, Cyberspace, and Jurisdiction: Issues Confronting U.S. Law Enforcement

Description: This report looks at issues for Congress related to expansion of legitimate and criminal operations across physical borders and through cyberspace as a result of globalization and technological innovation. In particular, it considers how Congress can leverage its legislative and oversight roles to bolster U.S. law enforcement's abilities to confront modern-day crime and whether federal law enforcement is utilizing existing mechanisms to effectively coordinate investigations and share information.
Date: July 20, 2012
Creator: Finklea, Kristin M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization (WTO): An Overview

Description: This report describes the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU), which is the World Trade Organization's (WTO) means of resolving disputes arising under WTO agreements. The report includes criticisms of certain flaws in the DSU, as well as WTO Members' suggestions for improvement. The report also describes the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), which represents the United States in WTO disputes, and discusses pieces of legislation that dictate procedures for specifically the United States in instances of WTO disputes.
Date: August 28, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Description: This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties.
Date: July 13, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement: Background and Key Issues

Description: The proposed Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a new agreement for combating intellectual property rights (IPR) infringement. The ACTA negotiation concluded in October 2010, nearly three years after it began, and negotiating parties released a final text of the agreement in May 2011. Negotiated by the United States, Australia, Canada, the European Union and its 27 member states, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, and Switzerland, the ACTA is intended to build on the IPR protection and enforcement obligations set forth in the 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement).
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Description: Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress.
Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Description: This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Williams, Brock R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department