Congressional Research Service Reports - 71 Matching Results

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Qatar and Its Neighbors: Disputes and Possible Implications
This report discusses the dispute between Qatar and several of its Gulf State and Arab neighbors led by Saudia Arabia which has resulted in the isolation of Qatar by Saudia Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt. The Saudi-led coalition has accused Qatar of supporting terrorism because of their support for the Muslim Brotherhood. Potential implications of the dispute for the United States are then discussed.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress
This report discuses a shift to a new international security environment and implications of that new environment on defense-related issues. It does not discuss potential implications of a shift in the international security environment for other policy areas, such as foreign policy and diplomacy, trade and finance, energy, and foreign assistance.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress
This report discusses the changing international security environment and how the new realities should effect U.S. defense spending and strategy.
Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements
This report discusses key statutory authorities and requirements governing the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) construction of barriers along the U.S. borders. It also includes appendixes listing federal laws that have been waived by DHS in furtherance of border construction projects.
European Security and Islamist Terrorism
This report briefly discusses the current security climate in Europe, as well as policy considerations for the U.S. Over the last two years, European governments and the European Union (EU) have grown increasingly alarmed by the rise of the Islamic State terrorist organization, its ability to attract European citizens to join the fighting in the Syria-Iraq region, and its use of violent extremist propaganda to inspire others.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
This report provides an overview of North American trade liberalization before NAFTA, an overview of NAFTA provisions, the economic effects of NAFTA, and policy considerations.
North American Free Trade Agreement: Notification for Renegotiation
This report discusses the fate of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) after the Trump Administration sent a 90-day notification to Congress of its intent to begin talks with Canada and Mexico to renegotiate NAFTA.
Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism
This report provides an overview of emergency and major disaster declarations and explains how they might be used in the aftermath of a terrorist incident that does not involve a fire or an explosion, such as high casualty mass shootings or chemical gas attacks. This report also provides an overview of Stafford Act assistance provided for past terrorist incidents.
Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy
This report outlines Iran's political structure and current leaders, human rights issues, and past and current U.S. relations with Iran.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report discusses the shift in the international security environment from a post Cold-War era to a new one with new priorities, strategies, and needs and implications for U.S. defense policy. Topics discussed include past security environments and indicators of a new one and various areas of defense policy affected.
Kurds in Iraq Propose Controversial Referendum on Independence
This report discusses the proposed Kurdish independence referendum set for September 25, 2017 and the opposition of the Iraqi and U.S. government to holding it at that time.
The Open Skies Treaty: Issues in the Current Debate
This report discuses the Open Skies Treaty that was signed in 1992 and began operation in 2002 between 34 countries in Europe and North America including the U.S. It allows member countries to fly unarmed observation flights with cameras and video capabilities within certain parameters in other member countries territory without air-space restrictions over military installations and activities to increase transparency and help prevent accidental war. Recent noncompliance by Russia in certain areas is also discussed.
Iran Policy and the European Union
This report expresses concerns by European Union (EU) officials that the Trump Administration might abandon consensus U.S.- EU policy toward Iran.
U.S.-Mexican Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments
This report describes U.S.-Mexican water sharing of the Colorado and Rio Grande rivers pursuant to binational agreements. The International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) is charged with addressing issues that arise during application of binational water treaties.
The European Union: Current Challenges and Future Prospects
This report provides a brief history of the European Union (EU) and the major challenges currently confronting the EU as an institution. It also discusses the potential implications both for the EU itself and for U.S.-EU relations.
Why Did March 2016 U.N. Sanctions Not Curb China's Imports of Coal from North Korea?
This report discusses sanctions on North Korea in response to the country's fourth nuclear test and China's imports of coal from North Korea.
Zimbabwe's Political Transition: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the resignation of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe after a military intervention and the installation of one of his former vice-presidents, Emmanuel Mnangagwa as interim President. Various possible outcomes of the change and possible actions by Congress to advance U.S. interests in the region are discussed.
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Afghanistan's historical governments and the activities of the U.S. and other countries during various phases of war against terrorist groups and current U.S. policies in regard to Afghanistan. Topics such as troop numbers, military and governmental strategies, Afghan Army training, developmental aid, the economy, and human rights issues are discussed.
Quatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report outlines Qatar's governmental structure and leaders, economy, human rights issues, their relations with other countries in the region, and U.S. defense partnerships with Qatar.
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS): OECD Tax Proposals
This report first reviews the basics of international tax rules. It then discusses the various action items organized into Action Item 1, which relates to the digital economy and proposes standards only with respect to VATS; Action Items 2-5, 7, and 8-10, items related primarily to profit shifting; Action Item 5, which relates to harmful tax practices; Action Item 6, regarding tax treaties; and Action Items 11-15, which are primarily administrative in nature.
Foreign Affairs Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) Funding: Background and Current Status
This report provides background information and discusses the foreign affairs Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funding.
Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes some of the options the Administration might use to end or alter U.S. implementation of the JCPOA, if there is a decision to do so. These options, which might involve use of procedures in the JCPOA itself or the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act (P.L. 114-17), are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
Paraguay: In Brief
This report outlines Paraguay's governmental structure and leaders, economy, and relations between the United States and Paraguay.
Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 115th Congress
This report discusses U.S. policy toward China in regards to the many human rights abuses found there. A selection of the top areas human rights violations in China are discussed such as internet control. religious freedom, the criminal justice system, family planning policies, and the persecution of ethnic minorities. This is followed by a discussion of U.S. efforts and policies aimed at ending or decreasing human rights abuses in China.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report outlines the United Arab Emirates (UAE) governmental structure, economy, military, foreign policy, human rights issues and U.S. policies and relations with the UAE. Major areas of U.S. policy concerns discussed are the UAE's participation in the war in Yemen supporting Saudia Arabia and the current standoff with Quatar over alleged sponsorship of terrorism by Quatar in relation to the significant amount of U.S. military personnel based in the UAE.
China-India Border Tensions at Doka-La
This report discusses border disputes between China and India in the Himalayas and the recent dispute at Doka La over China extending a road into disputed territory between Bhutan and China.
NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization
This report provides a brief overview of The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the role of Congress in the renegotiation process. It discusses key issues that are likely to be discussed during the current negotiations, and it provides a discussion of policy implications for Congress going forward.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran. CRS has no way to independently corroborate any of the reporting on which these examples are based and no mandate to assess whether any firm or other entity is complying with U.S. or international sanctions against Iran. The sections are grouped by function, in the chronological order in which the themes have emerged
Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report discusses the Iran nuclear agreement that was made on July 14, 2015 and the lifting of sanctions related to their nuclear weapons programs which occurred on January 16, 2016. Iran's obligations under the agreement and Congressional discussion of adjustments to the agreement or withdrawal are outlined.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and previous actions taken by the United States to intervene in the conflict, mediate peace, and assist refugees as well current considerations related to Syria in Congress.
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) board and the Security Council. It will be updated as events warrant.
Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention
This report provides information on the ongoing crisis in Yemen. The report includes an overview, information about the latest developments in the conflict, Yemen's participation in the United Nations, and the U.S. response to Yemen's humanitarian access.
The 2017 National Security Strategy: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the 2017 National Security Strategy (NSS) document released by the Trump Administration on December 18, 2017, and its major themes.
Taylor Force Act: Palestinian Terrorism-Related Payments and U.S. Aid
This report discusses possible legislation (the Taylor Force Act) that would affect U.S. aid payments to the Palestinian Authority. It provides background on the concerns that money might go toward payments to families accused of terrorism by Israel, as well as a discussion of proposed bills.
Possible U.S. Policy Approaches to North Korea
This report describes President Trump's current policy toward North Korea and possible options for future U.S. policy. Options include diplomatic engagement, international and U.S. sanction increases, military strikes, destabilization of the North Korean government through intelligence activities and popular resentment, enhanced military cooperation with allies, and additional funding for preventing arms trading and related trade with North Korea.
TPP Countries Near Agreement without U.S. Participation
This report discuses the negotiations between the signatory countries of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) after the U.S. withdrawal in January 2017 and possible effects of the implementation of an agreement without the U.S. on the U.S. economy and their image in Asia.
The Rohingya Crises in Bangladesh and Burma
This report discusses the Rohingya refugee crisis in Burma and Bangladesh and proposed legislation in Congress regarding restrictions on Burmese military officials, trade, and humanitarian assistance. A brief background on the Rohingya people group, repressive policies by the Burmese government, current conditions in Burma and Bangladesh, risks of radicalization, human rights violations, and attempts by the U.N. and others to resolve the conflict are included in the report.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel Visits President Trump
This report discusses the visit of German Chancellor Angela Merkel with President Donald Trump at the White House on March 17, 2017.
El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
This report examines El Salvador's political, security, human rights, and economic conditions. It then analyzes selected issues in U.S.-Salvadoran relations.
Mexican-U.S. Relations: Increased Tensions
This report describes the increased tensions in Mexican-U.S. relations after Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto canceled an upcoming meeting with President Donald J. Trump following exchanges between the two leaders over social media concerning U.S. policies toward Mexico.
Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress
This report describes the current status of the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It includes a historical overview and summary of the provisions of the INF Treaty and Russia's concerns with U.S. compliance with the treaty and concludes with a discussion of options that the United States might pursue to address its concerns with Russia's activities and options that it might pursue if Russia deploys new INF-range missiles.
A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress
This report briefly describes the shift in the international security environment that some observers believe has occurred, and identifies some defense-related issues for Congress that could arise from it. Congress's decisions on these issues could have significant implications for U.S. defense capabilities and funding requirements.
Overview of U.S. Sanctions Regimes on Russia
This report discusses sanctions imposed by the Obama administration on Russia for malicious cyber activity.
Cuba: Issues and Actions in the 114th Congress
This report discusses Cuba's political succession in 2006 from the long-ruling Fidel Castro to his brother Raúl, human rights, and a number of market-oriented economic policy changes.
Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief
This report focuses on recent dynamics in U.S.-Israel relations; U.S.-Israel next steps following the July 2015 Iranian nuclear deal; regional threats Israel perceives from Hezbollah, Syria, and elsewhere; recently-intensified Israeli-Palestinian tensions and violence in connection with Jerusalem's holy sites; and domestic political developments in Israel.
U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America: Policy Issues for Congress
This report examines the U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America, including its formulation, objectives, funding, and relationship to the Alliance for Prosperity plan put forward by the northern triangle governments. The report also analyzes several policy issues that the 115th Congress may assess as it considers the future of the Central America strategy.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be. This report includes (particularly in its appendixes) references to other CRS products that provide more in-depth discussions of specific policy and program areas bearing on the U.S. role.
The State Department's "Trafficking in Persons" Report: Scope, Aid Restrictions, and Methodology
This report describes the legislative provisions that govern the U.S. Department of State's production of the annual TIP Report, reviews country ranking trends in the TIP Report, and identifies recent congressional oversight of and legislative activity to modify the TIP Report. Answers to selected frequently asked questions (FAQs) are included throughout the report.