Congressional Research Service Reports - 89 Matching Results

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Algeria: Current Issues

Description: This report examines the current state of Algeria, including the country's associations with terrorism, despite steady decreases of domestic terrorism; the lessening in power of the Algerian military; and growing oil revenues.
Date: April 24, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

Description: This report discusses the recent conflict in Syria including an overview of the situation, information about anti- and pro-Asad forces, background on chemical weapons and disarmament, plans for U.S. policy and assistance, and a general sense of the future outlook.
Date: June 24, 2014
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.; Humud, Carla E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS): OECD Tax Proposals

Description: This report first reviews the basics of international tax rules. It then discusses the various action items organized into Action Item 1, which relates to the digital economy and proposes standards only with respect to VATS; Action Items 2-5, 7, and 8-10, items related primarily to profit shifting; Action Item 5, which relates to harmful tax practices; Action Item 6, regarding tax treaties; and Action Items 11-15, which are primarily administrative in nature.
Date: July 24, 2017
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burma's Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions

Description: The installation of the Union Government in 2011 and the undertaking of initial reforms have raised the prospects for the resumption of a democratically elected civilian government in Burma after five decades of military rule. The release of Burma's political prisoners has a central role in U.S. policy and Burma's political future. Many of the U.S. sanctions on Burma were implemented after Burma's ruling military junta suppressed protests and detained many political prisoners. In addition, the removal of many of the existing U.S. sanctions requires the release of all political prisoners in Burma.
Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central America and the Dominican Republic in the Context of the Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) with the United States

Description: This report explains the conditions in five countries in Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and one country in the Caribbean (Dominican Republic) that will be partners with the United States in the U.S.-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) signed in August 2004. All of the signatory countries except Costa Rica have approved the pact. The agreement will enter into force for the approving countries on an agreed date, tentatively January 1, 2006. In U.S. approval action, the House and Senate passed the required implementing legislation (H.R. 3045) on July 27 and 28, 2005, and the President signed it into law (P.L. 109-53) on August 2, 2005.
Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry; Ribando, Clare; Sek, Lenore; Sullivan, Mark P.; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Veillette, Connie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Description: The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to oversee the Convention's implementation. Chemical Weapons Convention implementing legislation, as S. 610, passed the Senate unanimously on May 23, 1997. This legislation, which was an amendment in the nature of a substitute reported from the Judiciary Committee, provides the statutory authority for domestic compliance with the Convention's provisions. It sets criminal and civil penalties for the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, possession, or use of chemical weapons.
Date: June 24, 2002
Creator: Bowman, Steven R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State

Description: This report discusses the formation of the Islamic State. Some 60 nations and partner organizations agreed to participate, contributing either military forces or resources (or both) to the campaign. In Brussels in December 2014, these 60 partners agreed to organize themselves along five "lines of effort," with at least two countries in the lead for each.
Date: August 24, 2016
Creator: McInnis, Kathleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cyprus: Reunification Proving Elusive

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the history of the negotiations regarding reunification of the island of Cyprus and a description of some of the issues involved in those talks.
Date: July 24, 2018
Creator: Morelli, Vincent L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and U.S. Policy

Description: This report reviews the status of the Democratic Republic of the Congo peace process, provides background on recent conflicts in the Congo, briefly summarizes the political history that led to these conflicts, and assesses prospects for the future. It also describes relevant U.S. policy and congressional involvement.
Date: February 24, 2014
Creator: Arieff, Alexis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015

Description: This report discusses the foreign affairs appropriations passed within the last 21 years; nearly all of them were passed within omnibus, consolidated, or full-year continuing resolutions, and usually after the start of the new fiscal year. Many foreign policy experts contend that stand-alone appropriation legislation would allow for a more rigorous debate on specific foreign policy activities. They also believe that the practice of delayed appropriations has constrained ongoing program operating levels and the ability to introduce or fund new programs that did not exist in the previous year's budget.
Date: March 24, 2015
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Approaches to Homeland Security and Counterterrorism

Description: This report examines homeland security and counterterrorist measures in six selected European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. None of these European countries currently has a single ministry or department equivalent to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. In most of these countries, responsibility for different aspects of homeland security and counterterrorism is scattered across several ministries or different levels of government.
Date: July 24, 2006
Creator: Archick, Kristin; Ek, Carl; Gallis, Paul E.; Miko, Francis T. & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export Tax Benefits and the WTO: Foreign Sales Corporations and the Extraterritorial Replacement Provisions

Description: The U.S. tax code’s Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) provisions provided a tax benefit for U.S. exporters. However, the European Union (EU) in 1997 charged that the provision was an export subsidy and thus contravened the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. A WTO ruling upheld the EU complaint, and to avoid WTO sanctioned retaliatory tariffs, U.S. legislation in November 2000 replaced FSC with the “extraterritorial income” (ETI) provisions, consisting of a redesigned export tax benefit of the same magnitude as FSC. The EU maintained that the new provisions are also not WTO-compliant and asked the WTO to rule on the matter.
Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing U.S. Agricultural Exports to Cuba

Description: This report discusses a new policy approach toward Cuba that, in part, seeks to reduce the role of long-standing U.S. sanctions on commercial relations with Cuba while also promoting greater engagement and normal relations with the island nation.
Date: June 24, 2016
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2008 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for International Affairs

Description: Congress approved an FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 2764) during the week of December 17, 2007, that included some emergency supplemental funding for international affairs requested by the White House. This report analyzes the international affairs portion of the request and tracks related legislative activity.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Veillette, Connie; Epstein, Susan B.; Margesson, Rhoda & Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy

Description: Following a review of such broad policy issues, this report treats specific human rights issues of current interest. Discussions of controversy over the selection of an Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs and of human rights policy at the international financial institutions are followed by reviews of U.S. human rights policy toward Argentina, El Salvador, Nicaragua, South Africa, and the Soviet Union.
Date: November 24, 1982
Creator: Bite, Vita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imports from North Korea: Existing Rules, Implications of the KORUS FTA, and the Kaesong Industrial Complex

Description: This report examines the issue of U.S. imports from North Korea in three parts: U.S. rules and practices governing imports from North Korea. North Korea's exports to South Korea (via the KIC) and China, its dominant export markets. The KORUS FTA's potential effect on U.S. imports of North Korean content.
Date: May 24, 2011
Creator: Manyin, Mark E.; Grimmett, Jeanne J.; Jones, Vivian C. & Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Crises and Disasters: U.S. Humanitarian Assistance Response Mechanisms

Description: Report that examines U.S. humanitarian assistance in international crises and disaster situations. It considers the sources and types of U.S. government aid, the response mechanisms of key U.S. agencies and departments, and possible issues for Congress--including competing aid and budget priorities, burden sharing and donor-fatigue, the transparency and efficacy of U.S. humanitarian assistance, consequences of such assistance, and potential links to broader U.S. foreign policy goals.
Date: May 24, 2013
Creator: Margesson, Rhoda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Drug Control Policy

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. international drug control policy. It describes major international counternarcotics initiatives and evaluates the broad array of U.S. drug control policy tools currently in use. The report also considers alternative counterdrug policy approaches to current initiatives and raises several counterdrug policy issues and considerations for policy makers.
Date: August 24, 2009
Creator: Wyler, Liana Sun
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment

Description: This report discusses the recent controversy that has arisen regarding U.S. treatment of enemy combatants and terrorist suspects detained in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations, and whether such treatment complies with U.S. statutes and treaties such as the U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Forms of Cruel and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT). Congress recently approved additional guidelines concerning the treatment of detainees. The Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006 (P.L. 109- 148), and the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-163) contain identical provisions that (1) require Department of Defense (DOD) personnel to employ United States Army Field Manual guidelines while interrogating detainees, and (2) prohibit the “cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment of persons under the detention, custody, or control of the United States Government.” These provisions, added to the defense appropriations and authorization bills via amendments introduced by Senator John McCain, have popularly been referred to as “the McCain amendment.” This report discusses the McCain amendment, as modified and subsequently enacted into law.
Date: January 24, 2006
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran and Israel: Tension Over Syria

Description: This report discusses the tensions between Iran and Israel, which have been exacerbated since 2011 by Iranian military operations in support of the Syrian government.
Date: October 24, 2018
Creator: Humud, Carla E.; Katzman, Kenneth & Zanotti, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran Sanctions

Description: This report focuses on the United States' relationship with Iran and how the Obama Administration is handling prior administration's economic sanctions against Iran. The Obama Administration's policy approach toward Iran has contrasted with the Bush Administration's by attempting to couple the imposition of sanctions to an active and direct U.S. effort to negotiate with Iran on the nuclear issue.
Date: December 24, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department