Congressional Research Service Reports - 153 Matching Results

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Court-Ordered Access to Smart Phones: In Brief

Description: This report specifically examines certain encryption issues that have been raised in the investigation of the December 2, 2015, terrorist attack in San Bernardino, CA. This report highlights certain issues that policymakers may examine as they follow the ongoing dispute between law enforcement and technology companies, and it focuses on questions related to the government's request.
Date: February 23, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin; Thompson, Richard M., II & Jaikaran, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Estimates: How Useful to Congress?

Description: National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are often of considerable interest to many Members of Congress. NIEs address issues of major national security importance which may require congressional action. However, NIEs have occasionally proved unreliable because they were based on insufficient evidence or contained faulty analysis. This report explores this issue and discusses the NIE process and its relevance to congressional policymaking.
Date: November 24, 2010
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SSCI Study of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program: Issues to Consider

Description: This report briefly discusses issues pertaining to the 500-page Executive Summary of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) Detention and Interrogation Program, which released to the public on December 9, 2014 describes the history of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program from late 2001 to January 2009, including a review of each of the 119 individuals known to have been held in CIA custody.
Date: December 16, 2014
Creator: Miles, Anne Daugherty
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Community Spending: Trends and Issues

Description: This report examines Intelligence Community (IC) funding over the past several decades, with an emphasis on the period from 2007-2017--the period in which total national and military intelligence program (NIP and MIP) spending dollars have been publicly disclosed on an annual basis. Intelligence-related spending (such as the Homeland Security Intelligence Program) that does not fall within the NIP and MIP is outside the scope of this report.
Date: November 8, 2016
Creator: Daugherty Miles, Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memorandum: Summary of the Substantive Provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017 and H.R. 3989, The USA Liberty Act of 2017

Description: This report summarizes the substantive provisions of S. 2010, the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017, as reported by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on October 25, 2017, and H.R. 3989, the USA Liberty Act of 2017, as ordered to be reported by the House Judiciary Committee on November 8, 2017. Both bills primarily amend and reauthorize Title VII of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).
Date: November 16, 2017
Creator: Liu, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities

Description: This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications.
Date: May 21, 2015
Creator: Liu, Edward C. & Nolan, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities and Recent Developments

Description: This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications and is targeted at foreigners who are not within the United States, but may also inadvertently acquire the communications of U.S. persons.
Date: April 1, 2014
Creator: Liu, Edward C.; Nolan, Andrew & Thompson, Richard M., II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terrorist Financing: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation

Description: This report discusses the 9/11 Commission's recommendation that the U.S. government shift the focus of its efforts to counter terrorist financing from a strategy based on seizing terrorist assets to a strategy based on exploiting intelligence gathered from financial investigations.
Date: February 25, 2005
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: A Sketch

Description: This report discusses the sunset of a handful of communications-related sections of the USA PATRIOT Act and the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act on March 10, 2006. The authority of the expiring sections remains in effect only as it relates to foreign intelligence investigations begun before sunset or to offenses or potential offenses begun or occurring before that date. Thereafter, the law reverts to its previous form unless it has been amended in the interim or subsequently renewed.
Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renewed Crypto Wars?

Description: This report briefly examines renewed tensions between tech companies and the government regarding encryption "back doors" and how quickly-advancing technologies could impact law enforcement investigations.
Date: February 9, 2016
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes

Description: This report begins with an overview of both the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Court of Review, including the jurisdiction of these courts, how the judges are appointed, and the FISC’s practices and procedures for reviewing and issuing surveillance orders. The report then discusses the scope and underlying legal principles behind congressional regulation of the procedures of the federal courts, and applies those principles with respect to the various proposals to reform the FISA judicial review process.
Date: January 16, 2014
Creator: Nolan, Andrew & Thompson, Richard M., II
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the efforts currently underway to improve coordination and encourage better analysis amongst the various agencies within the U.S. Intelligence Community, especially with regard to the ongoing and prominent issue of international terrorism. In particular, this report addresses the false intelligence regarding Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and the current efforts in Iraq and Iran in general.
Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Were to Expire on December 31, 2005

Description: This report examines various provisions of the Patriot Act that were set to expire on December 31, 2005. Their expiration date has been postponed until March 10, 2006. The expiring sections deal with the power of federal authorities to conduct searches and seizures, generally searches and seizures relating to communications.
Date: February 6, 2006
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Intelligence Community: Selected Cross-Cutting Issues

Description: This report focuses on cross-cutting management issues that affect the Intelligence Community's (IC's) ability to counter "pervasive and emerging threats" to the United States and balance resources both appropriately and wisely. The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is charged with integrating the community of intelligence agencies so that they operate effectively as one team.
Date: April 12, 2016
Creator: Miles, Anne D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues

Description: This report explains the management structure for the National Intelligence Program (NIP), and Military Intelligence Program (MIP), to include their two separate budget processes and the roles of the Director of National Intelligence and the Under Secretary of Defense (Intelligence). The concluding section of this report considers the ability of the U.S. government to make the best use of its intelligence-related resources when: (1) total intelligence spending is impossible to calculate; (2) its management and oversight is completely decentralized; and (3) IC funding alone is largely divided into two categories (NIP and MIP)-- managed within the executive branch separately, justified to Congress separately, and overseen by separate congressional committees.
Date: November 8, 2016
Creator: Daugherty Miles, Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches

Description: Although the activities involved in homeland security intelligence (HSINT) itself are not new, the relative importance of state, local, and private sector stakeholders; the awareness of how law enforcement information might protect national security; and the importance attached to homeland security intelligence have all increased substantially since the events of September 11, 2001. This report provides a potential conceptual model of how to frame HSINT, including geographic, structural/statutory, and holistic approaches. Given that state, local, tribal, and private sector officials play such an important role in HSINT, the holistic model, one not constrained by geography or levels of government, strikes many as the most compelling. The report argues that there is, in effect, a Homeland Security Intelligence Community (HSIC). While this community may not necessarily be a useful construct from a management perspective, it is nevertheless a community as traditionally defined. Although the HSIC’s members are diffused across the nation, they share a common counterterrorism interest.
Date: August 18, 2006
Creator: Masse, Todd M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department