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Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: A Brief Overview

Description: This report discusses the recent disclosures of various National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance and data collection programs that have prompted increased attention on the government's collection of foreign intelligence.
Date: March 31, 2014
Creator: Cole, Jared P. & Nolan, Andrew
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities and Recent Developments

Description: This report focuses on two main National Security Agency (NSA) collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications and is targeted at foreigners who are not within the United States, but may also inadvertently acquire the communications of U.S. persons.
Date: April 1, 2014
Creator: Liu, Edward C.; Nolan, Andrew & Thompson, Richard M., II
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Description: This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Date: March 25, 2014
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions

Description: This report discusses potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service through an examination of the Service's history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Date: June 18, 2014
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues

Description: This report briefly outlines three issues relating to electronic surveillance under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and touches upon some of the perspectives reflected in the ongoing debate. These issues include the inherent and often dynamic tension between national security and civil liberties, particularly rights of privacy and free speech; the need for the intelligence community to be able to efficiently and effectively collect foreign intelligence information from the communications of foreign persons located outside the United States in a changing, fast-paced, and technologically sophisticated international environment or from United States persons abroad, and the differing approaches suggested to meet this need; and limitations of liability for those electronic communication service providers who furnish aid to the federal government in its foreign intelligence collection. Two constitutional provisions, in particular, are implicated in this debate — the Fourth and First Amendments. This report briefly examines these issues and sets them in context.
Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Bazan, Elizabeth B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: March 2, 2010
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives

Description: This report first describes the current select committees on intelligence and then the former Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, often cited as a model for a counterpart on intelligence. The study also sets forth proposed characteristics for a joint committee on intelligence, differences among these, and their pros and cons. The report examines other actions and alternatives affecting congressional oversight in the field.
Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges

Description: This report assesses the effects of the absence of intelligence authorization legislation subsequent to FY2005 and indicate the substantial but limited effects of the FY2010 Intelligence Authorization Act (P.L. 111-259)
Date: September 18, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Lange, Rebecca S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches

Description: This report provides a potential conceptual model of how to frame homeland security intelligence (HSINT), including geographic, structural/statutory, and holistic approaches. Given that state, local, tribal, and private sector officials play such an important role in HSINT, the holistic model, one not constrained by geography or levels of government, strikes many as the most compelling. The report argues that there is, in effect, a Homeland Security Intelligence Community (HSIC). Although the HSIC's members are diffused across the nation, they share a common counterterrorism interest. The proliferation of intelligence and information fusion centers across the country indicate that state and local leaders believe there is value to centralizing intelligence gathering and analysis in a manner that assists them in preventing and responding to local manifestations of terrorist threats to their people, infrastructure, and other assets. At the policy and operational levels, the communication and integration of federal HSINT efforts with these state and local fusion centers will likely remain an important priority and future challenge.
Date: January 14, 2009
Creator: Randol, Mark A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: October 29, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Description: This report gives an overview of current intelligence issues of interest to the 112th Congress. It includes background and analysis including most recent development, ongoing Congressional concerns, specific issues for the 112th Congress, and a summary of related legislation from the 109th through the 112th Congresses.
Date: April 23, 2013
Creator: Erwin, Marshall Curtis
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Issues for Congress

Description: This report explores the various issues currently facing Congress in regards to intelligence and counterterrorism activities, including the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (P.L. 108-458), signed in December 2004; the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which that act created; the importance of collaborative efforts between various intelligence agencies to successfully carry out counterterrorism measures; and other pieces of legislation relevant to such matters.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smartphone Data Encryption: A Renewed Boundary for Law Enforcement?

Description: This report briefly examines new issues for law enforcement regarding data encryption and smartphones including cyber-criminals and Apple's new privacy policy that removes the back-doors that law enforcement used to be able to use to access user data.
Date: October 17, 2014
Creator: Finklea, Kristin
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions

Description: Published reports have suggested that in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Pentagon has expanded its counterterrorism intelligence activities as part of what the Bush Administration termed the global war on terror. Some observers have asserted that the Department of Defense (DOD) may have been conducting certain kinds of counterterrorism intelligence activities that would statutorily qualify as "covert actions," and thus require a presidential finding and the notification of the congressional intelligence committees. This report examines the legislative background surrounding covert action and poses several related policy questions.
Date: April 10, 2013
Creator: Erwin, Marshall C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions

Description: This report frames potential policy questions concerning the U.S. Secret Service's (USSS) mission and organization through an examination of the USSS history and its statutory authorities, mission, and present activities within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Date: July 31, 2008
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: January 6, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues

Description: This report provides background on the development of intelligence satellites and identifies the roles various agencies play in their management and use. Issues surrounding the current policy and proposed changes are discussed, including the findings of an Independent Study Group (ISG) with respect to the increased sharing of satellite intelligence data. There follows a discussion of legal considerations, including whether satellite reconnaissance might constitute a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment; an overview of statutory authorities, as well as restrictions that might apply; and a brief description of executive branch authorities and Department of Defense directives that might apply. The report concludes by suggesting policy issues Congress may consider as it deliberates the potential advantages and pitfalls that may be encountered in expanding the role of satellite intelligence for homeland security purposes.
Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr. & Elsea, Jennifer K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Gang of Four" Congressional Intelligence Notifications

Description: This report reviews the history of the Gang of Four notification process and compares this procedure with that of the "Gang of Eight" notification procedure. The "Gang of Eight" procedure is statutorily based and provides that the chairmen and ranking Members of the intelligence committee, along with the Speaker and minority leader of the House, and Senate majority and minority leaders--rather than the full membership of the intelligence committees-- are to receive prior notice of particularly sensitive covert action programs, if the President determines that limited access to such programs is essential to meet extraordinary circumstances affecting vital U.S. interests.
Date: April 16, 2013
Creator: Erwin, Marshall Curtis
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses Congressional issues regarding Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems, which are integral components of both national policymaking and military operations, including counterterrorism operations. ISR systems are costly and complicated, and the relationships among organizations responsible for designing and operating these systems are equally complicated.
Date: April 16, 2013
Creator: Erwin, Marshall Curtis
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress

Description: This report describes the statutory provision authorizing Gang of Eight notifications, reviews the legislative history of the provision, and examines the impact of such notifications on congressional oversight.
Date: April 10, 2013
Creator: Erwin, Marshall Curtis
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes

Description: This report begins with an overview of both the FISC and the FISA Court of Review, including the jurisdiction of these courts, how the judges are appointed, and the FISC's practices and procedures for reviewing and issuing surveillance orders. The report then discusses the scope and underlying legal principles behind congressional regulation of the procedures of the federal courts, and applies those principles with respect to the various proposals to reform the FISA judicial review process.
Date: August 26, 2014
Creator: Nolan, Andrew & Thompson, Richard M., II
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Set to Expire February 28, 2010

Description: The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) provides a statutory framework by which government agencies may, when gathering foreign intelligence investigation, obtain authorization to conduct electronic surveillance or physical searches, utilize pen registers and trap and trace devices, or access specified business records and other tangible things. This report discusses three sunsetting amendments of FISA which include the "Lone Wolf" provision, "roving" wiretaps, and access to business records.
Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: Henning, Anna C. & Liu, Edward C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department