Congressional Research Service Reports - 241 Matching Results

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Economic Development Administration: A Review of Elements of Its Statutory History

Description: This report discusses the Economic Development Administration, which was created with the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and has a 45-year history of supporting job creation and long-term economic recovery efforts in the nation's economically distressed areas.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues

Description: This report identifies a number of issues receiving attention in connection with water infrastructure. It begins with a brief review of federal involvement, describes the debate about funding needs, and then examines key issues, including what is the nature of the problems to be solved; who will pay, and what is the federal role; and questions about mechanisms for delivering federal support, including state-by-state allotment. Recent congressional and Administration activity on these issues also is reviewed.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Copeland, Claudia & Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

35 Years of Water Policy: The 1973 National Water Commission and Present Challenges

Description: This report presents the National Water Commission's (NWC) recommendations and analyzes how issues targeted by the recommendations have evolved during the intervening years. The report focuses on key federal-level recommendations, thereby targeting what has been accomplished since 1973, what issues remain unresolved, and what additional concerns have developed.
Date: May 11, 2009
Creator: Cody, Betsy A. & Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system.
Date: June 5, 2013
Creator: Mallett, William J.; Carter, Nicole T. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Infrastructure Security: Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of industry and federal activities related to LNG security. The report describes U.S. LNG infrastructure, the industry's safety record and security risks, and the industry's security initiatives since September 11, 2001. It summarizes recent changes in federal LNG and maritime security law and related changes in the security roles of federal agencies. The report discusses several policy concerns related to federal LNG security efforts: 1) public costs of marine security, 2) uncertainty regarding LNG terrorism risks, and 3) security implications of promoting U.S.-flagged LNG tankers and U.S. crews.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure

Description: This report addresses several options being considered by Congress to address the financing needs of local communities for wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects and to decrease or close the gap between available funds and projected needs. Six options that are reflected in current or recent legislative proposals, including budgetary implications, are discussed.
Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Mallett, William J. & Maguire, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Role of Public Works Infrastructure in Economic Stimulus

Description: Interest in using federal government spending to stimulate U.S. economic recovery has intensified recently in response to indicators showing significant deterioration of the economy. Some policymakers favor using traditional monetary and fiscal policies. Others, however, favor making accelerated investments in the nation's public infrastructure in order to create jobs while also meeting infrastructure needs. This report is an overview of policy issues associated with the approach of using infrastructure as a mechanism for economic stimulus.
Date: January 6, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; Levine, Linda; Mallett, William J. & Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure: The National Asset Database

Description: The purpose of this report is to discuss the National Asset Database: what is in it, how it is populated, what the Database apparently is, what it is not, and how it is intended to be used. The report also discusses some of the issues on which Congress could focus its oversight, including appropriation bill language.
Date: September 14, 2006
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response

Description: This report describes information that has been gathered about impacts of the August 29 hurricane (Hurricane Katrina) on drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities, and on ongoing efforts to assess damages and needs to repair and reconstruct damaged systems.
Date: October 19, 2005
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: This report discusses the CDBG program, which administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal government’s largest and most widely available source of financial assistance to support state and local government-directed neighborhood revitalization, housing rehabilitation, and economic development activities.
Date: September 21, 2011
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services, such as mortgage financing for homebuyers and not-for-profit developers; underwriting and risk capital for community facilities; technical assistance; and commercial loans and investments to small, start-up, or expanding businesses. This report begins by describing the CDFI Fund’s history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. A description of the fund’s process of certifying certain financial institutions to be eligible for the fund’s program awards follows. The next section provides an overview of each program’s purpose, use of award proceeds, eligibility criteria, and relevant issues for Congress.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water Resources Development Act (WRDA): Army Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: The Corps is a federal agency in the Department of Defense with military and civilian responsibilities. At the direction of Congress, the Corps plans, builds, operates, and maintains a wide range of water resources facilities in U.S. states and territories.
Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health.
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response

Description: This report describes information that has been gathered about impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities and on ongoing efforts to assess damages and needs to repair and reconstruct damaged systems.
Date: March 22, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Libraries: The Federal System and Related Legislation

Description: Through the National Archives and Records Administration, the federal government currently manages and maintains 12 presidential libraries. Inaugurated with the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955, these entities are privately constructed on behalf of former Presidents and, upon completion, are deeded to the federal government. This report provides a brief overview of the federal presidential libraries system and tracks the progress of related legislation.
Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Army Corps of Engineers' Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments

Description: Permits issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorize various types of development projects in wetlands and other waters of the United States. The Corps' regulatory process involves two types of permits: general permits for actions for private landowners that will likely have a minor effect on wetlands, and individual permits for more significant actions. Interest groups have a number of specific criticisms of the permits. For some time, there has been a stalemate in Congress over legislation related to this issue.
Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Davis-Bacon Act: Institutional Evolution and Public Policy

Description: This report examines policy issues the Davis-Bacon Act has sparked through the years and which remain a part of the Davis-Bacon debate of the 1990s. These include such questions as: wage rate determination procedures, reporting requirements under the Copeland Act, an appropriate threshold for activation of the statute, interagency relationships with respect to Davis-Bacon enforcement and compliance activity, administrative or judicial appeals procedures, the use of "helpers" and other low-skilled workers on covered projects, and the right of a President to suspend the statute as well as the conditions under which such a suspension may occur. That the fundamental premise of the Act remains in contention after 60 years may be, itself, part of the public policy debate.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996 authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) latest (2003) survey of capital improvement needs for public water systems found that water systems need to invest $276.8 billion on infrastructure improvements over 20 years to ensure the provision of safe water. Key issues include the gap between estimated needs and funding, SDWA compliance costs, and the need for cities to update and maintain water infrastructure, apart from SDWA compliance.
Date: October 24, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background and Early Implementation of PDD-63

Description: The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the supply and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g. electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed or financial capital, the institutions that manage it, and the record- keeping and communications that move it from one institution to another).
Date: June 19, 2001
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

Description: The nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g. electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed). Computers and communications, themselves critical infrastructures, are increasingly tying these infrastructures together. This report aims to address the concern that this reliance on computers and computer networks raises the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructures to “cyber” attacks.
Date: December 14, 2001
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background and Early Implementation of PDD-63

Description: The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the supply and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g. electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed or financial capital, the institutions that manage it, and the record- keeping and communications that move it from one institution to another).
Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

Description: This report presents a working definition for the term “cyber terrorism”, plus background information describing how current technology and management processes may leave computers exposed to cyber-attack, and a discussion of possible effects of a cyber-attack. Potential issues for Congress are presented in the second section, including: whether appropriate guidance exists for a DOD information warfare response to a cyber-attack; whether the need to detect possible cyber terrorist activity interferes with individual privacy; whether the roles and responsibilities for protecting against a possible cyber terrorist attack need more clarity for government, industry, and home users; and, whether information sharing on cyber threats and vulnerabilities must be further increased between private industry and the federal government. The final section describes possible policy options for improving protection against threats from possible cyber terrorism.
Date: October 17, 2003
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department