Congressional Research Service Reports - 237 Matching Results

Search Results

Critical Infrastructures: What Makes an Infrastructure Critical?

Description: A fluid definition of what constitutes a critical infrastructure could complicate policymaking and actions. At the very least, a growing list of infrastructures in need of protection will require the federal government to prioritize its efforts. Essentially the federal government will have to try to minimize the impact on the nation’s critical infrastructure of any future terrorist attack, taking into account what those impacts might be and the likelihood of their occurring.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Moteff, John D.; Copeland, Claudia & Fischer, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: What Makes an Infrastructure Critical?

Description: A fluid definition of what constitutes a critical infrastructure could complicate policymaking and actions. At the very least, a growing list of infrastructures in need of protection will require the federal government to prioritize its efforts. Essentially the federal government will have to try to minimize the impact on the nation’s critical infrastructure of any future terrorist attack, taking into account what those impacts might be and the likelihood of their occurring.
Date: August 30, 2002
Creator: Moteff, John D.; Copeland, Claudia & Fischer, John W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources

Description: This report serves as a starting point for congressional staff assigned to cover cybersecurity issues as they relate to critical infrastructure. Much is written about protecting U.S. critical infrastructure, and this report directs the reader to authoritative sources that address many of the most prominent issues.
Date: March 8, 2016
Creator: Tehan, Rita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Davis-Bacon Act: Institutional Evolution and Public Policy

Description: This report examines policy issues the Davis-Bacon Act has sparked through the years and which remain a part of the Davis-Bacon debate of the 1990s. These include such questions as: wage rate determination procedures, reporting requirements under the Copeland Act, an appropriate threshold for activation of the statute, interagency relationships with respect to Davis-Bacon enforcement and compliance activity, administrative or judicial appeals procedures, the use of "helpers" and other low-skilled workers on covered projects, and the right of a President to suspend the statute as well as the conditions under which such a suspension may occur. That the fundamental premise of the Act remains in contention after 60 years may be, itself, part of the public policy debate.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues

Description: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996 authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) latest (2003) survey of capital improvement needs for public water systems found that water systems need to invest $276.8 billion on infrastructure improvements over 20 years to ensure the provision of safe water. Key issues include the gap between estimated needs and funding, SDWA compliance costs, and the need for cities to update and maintain water infrastructure, apart from SDWA compliance.
Date: October 24, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Program Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to protect public health.
Date: February 22, 2008
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system.
Date: June 5, 2013
Creator: Mallett, William J.; Carter, Nicole T. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses a number of frequently asked questions about earthquake risk and highway system components, especially bridges. Earthquakes and related events, such as soil liquefaction, landslides, tsunamis, flooding, and fires, pose risks to highway infrastructure. Concerns about the U.S. highway system's seismic vulnerability stem from interest in protecting public safety, facilitating response and recovery efforts, and minimizing economic loss and social disruption.
Date: May 19, 2016
Creator: Mallett, William J.; Carter, Nicole T. & Folger, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Development Administration: A Review of Elements of Its Statutory History

Description: This report discusses the Economic Development Administration, which was created with the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 and has a 45-year history of supporting job creation and long-term economic recovery efforts in the nation's economically distressed areas.
Date: May 19, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: December 23, 2004
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Reliability: Options for Electric Transmission Infrastructure Improvements

Description: The electric utility industry is inherently capital intensive. At the same time, the industry must operate under a changing and sometimes unpredictable regulatory system at both the federal and state level. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 has set in place government activities intended to relieve congestion on the transmission system. Several factors have contributed to the lack of new transmission capacity; these are outlined within this report. This report also discusses earlier pieces of energy legislation.
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

Description: This report examines two recent initiatives by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in which the agency works with states to develop and implement new approaches for water quality goals that will be more cost-effective and address the most pressing water infrastructure problems first. The examples include an integrated planning policy and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure

Description: This report examines two recent initiatives by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in which the agency works with states to develop and implement new approaches for water quality goals that will be more cost-effective and address the most pressing water infrastructure problems first. The examples include an integrated planning policy and a framework policy for assessing a community's financial capability to meet objectives and requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Date: March 14, 2017
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Evolving Broadband Infrastructure: Expansion, Applications, and Regulation

Description: This report discusses issues for policymakers regarding how to craft a comprehensive broadband strategy that not only addresses broadband availability and adoption problems, but also addresses the long term impacts of next-generation networks on consumer use of the Internet and a regulatory framework that must keep pace with evolving telecommunications technology.
Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Moloney Figliola, Patricia; Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department