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Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues

Description: Report that summarizes recent trends in supplemental funding for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, particularly related to natural disasters. It provides summary data and analysis on Corps funding over the last 10 years and includes a general discussion of how the Corps funds emergency actions at its own facilities and elsewhere.
Date: November 29, 2012
Creator: Stern, Charles V. & Carter, Nicole T.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Capitol Visitor Center: An Overview

Description: This report presents the cost of the center, the most extensive addition to the Capitol since the Civil War, and the largest in the structure’s more than 200-year history, is now estimated to be at least $555 million. The project is being financed with appropriated funds, and a total of $65 million from private donations and revenue generated by the sale of commemorative coins.
Date: July 5, 2006
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Since it was established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee has operated in relative obscurity.1 According to a Treasury Department memorandum, the Committee originally was established in order to placate Congress, which had grown concerned over the rapid increase in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) investments in American portfolio assets (Treasury securities, corporate stocks and bonds), and to respond to concerns of some that much of the OPEC investments were being driven by political, rather than by economic, motives.
Date: April 24, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Description: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Since it was established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee has operated in relative obscurity.1 According to a Treasury Department memorandum, the Committee originally was established in order to placate Congress, which had grown concerned over the rapid increase in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) investments in American portfolio assets (Treasury securities, corporate stocks and bonds), and to respond to concerns of some that much of the OPEC investments were being driven by political, rather than by economic, motives.
Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters. The 111th Congress is considering $100 million in CDBG funds to help states and communities undertake disaster recovery activities in presidentially declared disaster areas affected by severe storms and flooding during the period from March 2010 through May 2010. The act limited distribution of these funds to states where the entire state was declared a disaster area (Rhode Island) and to states where at least 20 counties within the state were declared disaster areas (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Nebraska).
Date: July 12, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters.
Date: January 28, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: This report discusses how Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs are funded by Congress and what they have been used for in recent years: recovery efforts following terrorist attacks, riots, and natural disasters. The 111th Congress has approved $100 million in CDBG funds to help states and communities undertake disaster recovery activities in presidentially declared disaster areas affected by severe storms and flooding during the period from March 2010 through May 2010. The act limited distribution of these funds to states where the entire state was declared a disaster area (Rhode Island) and to states where at least 20 counties within the state were declared disaster areas (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Nebraska).
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: This report discusses the CDBG program, which administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the federal government’s largest and most widely available source of financial assistance to support state and local government-directed neighborhood revitalization, housing rehabilitation, and economic development activities.
Date: September 21, 2011
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief and Recovery

Description: In the aftermath of previous, presidentially-declared disasters, Congress has used the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program to help states and local governments finance recovery efforts, whether from natural or man-made disasters. This report will provide a general overview of the CDBG program and its use in disaster relief.
Date: October 19, 2005
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grants: Legislative Proposals to Assist Communities Affected by Home Foreclosures

Description: In response to the rising number of home mortgage foreclosures, several bills have been introduced during the 110th Congress that would provide additional federal assistance to state and local governments with high concentrations of foreclosed homes, subprime mortgage loans, and delinquent home mortgages. At least one of these proposals, H.R. 3221, as passed by the Senate, includes provisions that would use the framework of the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program to channel an additional $4 billion in assistance to state and local governments. This provision faces an uncertain future; objections to it have been raised by the Bush Administration and others, contending that the assistance will result in the rescue of lenders and speculators.
Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Boyd, Eugene & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Block Grants: Neighborhood Stabilization Program; Assistance to Communities Affected by Foreclosures

Description: Report regarding the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, P.L. 110-289, which allocates federal financial aid to all state and local governments with high amounts of foreclosed homes, subprime mortgage loans, and delinquent home mortgages. The report focuses on the assistance that aids in aquiring, rehabilitating, and reselling foreclosed and abandoned homes.
Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Boyd, Eugene & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Date: March 13, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (Fund's) history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section of the report analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest, regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Date: December 29, 2014
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: This report begins by describing the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund's (Fund's) history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. The next section of the report analyzes four policy considerations of congressional interest, regarding the Fund and the effective use of federal resources to promote economic development. Lastly, this report examines the Fund's programs and management to see if they represent an effective and efficient government effort to promote economic development in low-income and distressed communities.
Date: October 3, 2012
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues

Description: As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to local banks and financial institutions for solutions that address the specific development needs of low-income and distressed communities. Community development financial institutions (CDFIs) provide financial products and services, such as mortgage financing for homebuyers and not-for-profit developers; underwriting and risk capital for community facilities; technical assistance; and commercial loans and investments to small, start-up, or expanding businesses. This report begins by describing the CDFI Fund’s history, current appropriations, and each of its programs. A description of the fund’s process of certifying certain financial institutions to be eligible for the fund’s program awards follows. The next section provides an overview of each program’s purpose, use of award proceeds, eligibility criteria, and relevant issues for Congress.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: Lowry, Sean
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

Description: This report presents a working definition for the term “cyber terrorism”, plus background information describing how current technology and management processes may leave computers exposed to cyber-attack, and a discussion of possible effects of a cyber-attack. Potential issues for Congress are presented in the second section, including: whether appropriate guidance exists for a DOD information warfare response to a cyber-attack; whether the need to detect possible cyber terrorist activity interferes with individual privacy; whether the roles and responsibilities for protecting against a possible cyber terrorist attack need more clarity for government, industry, and home users; and, whether information sharing on cyber threats and vulnerabilities must be further increased between private industry and the federal government. The final section describes possible policy options for improving protection against threats from possible cyber terrorism.
Date: October 17, 2003
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Attack and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information for three types of attacks against computers (cyber-attack, physical attack, and electromagnetic attack), and discusses related vulnerabilities for each type of attack. The report also describes the possible effects of a coordinated cyberattack, or computer network attack (CNA), against U.S. infrastructure computers, along with possible technical capabilities of international terrorists.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Wilson, Clay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets: Definition and Identification

Description: This report reviews the concept and definition of “critical infrastructure” as it has appeared in federal reports, legislation and regulation since the early 1980s. The report highlights the changes and expansion of that definition as the focus of public policy debates shifted from infrastructure adequacy to infrastructure protection. Finally the report summarizes current policy issues associated with critical infrastructure identification by federal agencies and the private sector. The report is intentionally limited to definitional issues and categorization of infrastructure.
Date: October 1, 2004
Creator: Moteff, John D. & Parfomak, Paul W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

Description: This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet.
Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

Description: This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet.
Date: February 21, 2003
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

Description: This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet.
Date: April 23, 2003
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

Description: This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet.
Date: July 14, 2003
Creator: Shea, Dana A
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructure Information Disclosure and Homeland Security

Description: This report discusses the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) that was passed to ensure by statute citizen access to government information. Nine categories of information may be exempted from disclosure. Three of the nine exemptions provide possible protection against the release of critical infrastructure information: exemption 1 (national security information); exemption 3 (information exempted by statute); and exemption 4 (confidential business information). Congress has considered several proposals to exempt critical infrastructure information from the FOIA.
Date: August 31, 2002
Creator: Moteff, John D. & Stevens, Gina Marie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department