Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

Description: This report analyzes the barriers that are currently being constructed and maintained along the border by the U.S. Border Patrol (USBP), including historical and future cost estimates and the policy issues involved. Because the current debate has largely focused on the deployment of fencing to the border, this report will focus on the policy issues surrounding the construction of border fencing.
Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.; Kim, Yule & Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Employment Eligibility Verification

Description: This report discusses E-Verify, a program in which participating employers submit information about their new hires (name, date of birth, Social Security number, immigration/citizenship status, and alien number, if applicable) from the I-9 form. This information is automatically compared with information in Social Security Administration and, if necessary, DHS databases to verify identity and employment eligibility.
Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement

Description: This report examines some of the policy and legal issues that may accompany an increased role of state and local law officials in the enforcement of immigration law.
Date: March 11, 2009
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.; Ester, Karma & Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions

Description: This report discusses the four major principles underlie current U.S. policy on permanent immigration: the reunification of families, the admission of immigrants with needed skills, the protection of refugees, and the diversity of admissions by country of origin.
Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues, Options, and Legislation

Description: As immigration reform and the illegal alien population have gained congressional and public attention in the past several years, the issue of unauthorized employment has come to the fore. It is widely accepted that most unauthorized aliens enter and remain in the United States in order to work. This report discusses options for addressing the issue of unauthorized employment in the United States.
Date: March 2, 2009
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Immigration Policy on Permanent Admissions

Description: This report discusses the four major principles underlie current U.S. policy on permanent immigration: the reunification of families, the admission of immigrants with needed skills, the protection of refugees, and the diversity of admissions by country of origin.
Date: February 29, 2009
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expedited Citizenship Through Military Service: Current Law, Policy, and Issues

Description: This report gives an overview of the history of naturalization based on military service, discusses current law and policy, analyzes data on noncitizens in the military today and prior to the enactment of P.L. 108- 136, and discusses current legislative proposals and related issues.
Date: February 25, 2009
Creator: Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investor Visas: Policies and Issues

Description: This report provides a brief legislative background, discussions of immigrant and nonimmigrant investor's visas, a comparison of U.S. and Canadian immigrant investor programs, an analysis of the relationship between investment and migration, and finally a review of current issues.
Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visa Waiver Program

Description: This report discusses the visa waiver program (VWP), which allows for a bypass of the first step by which foreign visitors are screened for admissibility to enter the United States. Some policymakers are concerned that this waiver allows terrorists to more easily enter the country. The report provides waiver-related statistics and related legislation.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration: The Effects on Low-Skilled and High-Skilled Native-Born Workers

Description: The report opens with a discussion of how to analyze the impact of immigrants on the pay and job opportunities of native-born workers. It then uses this framework to examine and interpret the empirical literature on the subject. The report concludes with a discussion of policy implications.
Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: Levine, Linda
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Protective Service and Contract Security Guards: A Statutory History and Current Status

Description: This report discusses the history of the Federal Protective Service, which is responsible for protecting federal government property, personnel, visitors, and customers, including property leased by the General Services Administration (GSA). FPS currently employs over 15,000 contract security guards to protect federal property.
Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration-Related Document Fraud: Overview of Civil, Criminal, and Immigration Consequences

Description: This report discusses the primary civil, criminal, and immigration-related penalties associated with immigration-related document fraud. In order to enter or remain in the United States and be eligible for various immigration-related benefits, non-citizens (aliens) must comply with a number of document requirements under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).
Date: January 23, 2009
Creator: Kim, Yule & Garcia, Michael J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Immigration Policy on Temporary Admissions

Description: This report begins with a synthesis of the nonimmigrant categories according to the purpose of the visa. It discusses the periods of admission and length of stay and then summarizes grounds for inadmissibility and removal as well as reasons for termination of status. It describes the circumstances under which nonimmigrants may work in the United States and follows with an analysis of nonimmigrant admissions. The report concludes with a discussion of issues, followed by two detailed tables analyzing key admissions requirements across all nonimmigrant visa types.
Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C. & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Socioeconomic Impacts

Description: This report provides background on military base closures and an analysis of community economic impacts, planning for economic redevelopment, and environmental cleanup following closures. The most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission rejected 13 of the initial Department of Defense recommendations, significantly modified the recommendations for 13 other installations, and approved 22 major closures.
Date: January 13, 2009
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration-Related Worksite Enforcement: Performance Measures

Description: Over the past few years, the media have been filled with reports about worksite enforcement operations, commonly referred to as immigration raids. These operations represent the public face of efforts by the Department of Homeland Security to curtail the employment of unauthorized immigrants. According to 2006 estimates, there are some 7.8 million unauthorized workers in the U.S. civilian workforce. Enforcement activity by the Department of Labor (DOL) is also relevant to a discussion of federal efforts to curtail unauthorized employment.
Date: December 2, 2008
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Description: This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which include the slow rate of integration between the United States Border Patrol's (USBP) biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border.
Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

Description: The passage of the reauthorization of the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2008 reasserted congressional interest in influencing the Bush Administration's policy toward North Korea. In addition to reauthorizing funding at original levels, the bill expresses congressional criticism of the implementation of the original 2004 law and adjusts some of the provisions relating to the Special Envoy on Human Rights in North Korea and the U.S. resettlement of North Korean refugees. Some outside analysts have pointed to the challenges of highlighting North Korea's human rights violations in the midst of the ongoing nuclear negotiations, as well as the difficulty in effectively reaching North Korean refugees as outlined in the law. Further, the law may complicate coordination on North Korea with China and South Korea.
Date: October 22, 2008
Creator: Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Female Genital Mutilation as Persecution: When Can It Constitute a Basis for Asylum and Withholding of Removal?

Description: This report explores the basic statutory and regulatory framework that governs asylum law. This entails an outline of the requirements an applicant must meet in order to obtain relief under asylum law and a discussion about the differences between the two main forms of relief for aliens facing removal from the United States: asylum and withholding of removal. It will then examine several important issues and controversies concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) and its effect on asylum law.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Kim, Yule
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unauthorized Alien Students, Higher Education, and In-State Tuition Rates: A Legal Analysis

Description: Currently, federal law prohibits states from granting unauthorized aliens certain postsecondary educational benefits on the basis of state residence, unless equal benefits are made available to all U.S. citizens. This prohibition is commonly understood to apply to the granting of "in-state" residency status for tuition purposes. In the 110th Congress, several bills that would amend this federal law have been introduced. Meanwhile, some states have passed laws aimed at making unauthorized state residents eligible for in-state tuition without violating this provision. This report provides a legal overview of cases involving immigrant access to higher education, as well as an analysis of the legality of state laws that make in-state tuition rates available to illegal immigrants.
Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Description: When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of nationals from these troubled places who are in the United States. Provisions exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. The United States currently provides TPS to nationals from seven countries: Burundi, El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Somalia, and Sudan. Under the INA, the executive branch grants TPS. Congress, however, has also granted TPS legislatively, and legislation pertaining to TPS has received action in the 110th Congress.
Date: September 30, 2008
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Ester, Karma
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visa Waiver Program

Description: This report discusses the visa waiver program (VWP), which allows for a bypass of the first step by which foreign visitors are screened for admissibility to enter the United States. Some policymakers are concerned that this waiver allows terrorists to more easily enter the country. The report provides waiver-related statistics and related legislation.
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Siskin, Alison
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Description: When civil unrest, violence, or natural disasters erupt in spots around the world, concerns arise over the safety of nationals from these troubled places who are in the United States. This report discusses provisions that exist in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to offer temporary protected status (TPS) or relief from removal under specified circumstances. The United States currently provides TPS to nationals from seven countries: Burundi, El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Somalia, and Sudan. Under the INA, the executive branch grants TPS. Congress, however, has also granted TPS legislatively, and legislation pertaining to TPS has received action in the 110th Congress.
Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Ester, Karma
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department