Congressional Research Service Reports - 45 Matching Results

Search Results

U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy

Description: This report provides an examination of family-based immigration policy. In doing so, it outlines a brief history of U.S. family-based immigration policies, discusses current law governing admissions, and summarizes recommendations made by previous congressionally mandated committees charged with evaluating immigration policy. It then presents descriptive figures on legal immigrants entering the United States during the past decade and discusses the sizable queue of approved immigrant petitioners waiting for an immigrant visa. It closes by discussing selected policy issues.
Date: November 19, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive Discretion as to Immigration: Legal Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of the three broad types of discretion that the Executive can be seen to have as to immigration: (1) express delegations of discretionary authority; (2) discretion in enforcement (commonly known as prosecutorial or enforcement discretion); and (3) discretion in interpreting and applying statutes.
Date: November 10, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garcia, Michael John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress

Description: Immigration reform was an active legislative issue in the first session of the 113th Congress. The Senate passed the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S. 744), a comprehensive immigration reform bill that includes provisions on border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, legalization of unauthorized aliens, immigrant visas, nonimmigrant visas, and humanitarian admissions. For its part, the House took a different approach to immigration reform. Rather than considering a single comprehensive bill, the House acted on a set of immigration bills that address border security, interior enforcement, employment eligibility verification and worksite enforcement, and nonimmigrant and immigrant visas. House committees reported or ordered to be reported the following immigration bills: Border Security Results Act of 2013 (H.R. 1417); Strengthen and Fortify Enforcement (SAFE) Act (H.R. 2278); Legal Workforce Act (H.R. 1772); Agricultural Guestworker (AG) Act (H.R. 1773); and Supplying Knowledge-based Immigrants and Lifting Levels of STEM Visas (SKILLS Visa) Act (H.R. 2131). This report discusses these and other immigration-related issues that received legislative action or have been of significant congressional interest in the 113th Congress.
Date: November 4, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra; Bjelopera, Jerome P.; Garcia, Michael John; Kandel, William A.; Lee, Margaret Mikyung; Siskin, Alison et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report discusses the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) June 15, 2012 announcement that certain individuals who were brought to the United States as children and meet other criteria would be considered for relief from removal for two years, subject to renewal, under an initiative known as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, or DACA.
Date: September 30, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Obama Administration's November 2014 Immigration Initiatives: Questions and Answers

Description: On November 20, 2014, President Obama delivered a televised address wherein he broadly described the steps that his administration is taking to "fix" what he has repeatedly described as a "broken immigration system."1 Following the President's address, executive agencies made available intra-agency memoranda and fact sheets detailing specific actions that have already been taken, or will be taken in the future.2 These actions generally involve either border security, the current unlawfully present population, or future legal immigration. This report provides the answers to key legal questions related to the various immigration-related actions announced by the Obama Administration.
Date: November 24, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Description: "This report surveys the various authorities governing immigration detainers, including the standard detainer form (Form I-247) sent by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to other law enforcement agencies. The report also discusses key legal issues raised by immigration detainers, including whether Department of Homeland Security's (DHS's) detainer regulations and practices are beyond its statutory authority; whether states and localities are required to comply with immigration detainers; who has custody of aliens subject to detainers; and whether detainer practices violate aliens' constitutional rights. In considering these topics, it is important to note that Form I-247 and DHS's detainer practices have changed several times since 2010, and that decisions on the merits have not yet been issued in many cases challenging the use of detainers in conjunction with the Secure Communities program" (p. 6).
Date: October 6, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Naturalization Policy

Description: This report reviews the rights and obligations that come with naturalization. It examines the naturalization process, discusses recent trends regarding who, among the roughly 1 million immigrants entering the United States each year, ultimately becomes a U.S. citizen, and discusses recent naturalization-related policy issues.
Date: January 16, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation

Description: This report provides an overview of prior and pending challenges by states to federal officials' alleged failure to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) or other provisions of immigration law. It begins by discussing the lawsuits filed by six states in the mid-1990s; Arizona's counterclaims to the federal government's suit to enjoin enforcement of S.B. 1070; and Mississippi's challenge to the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative. It then describes the challenge brought by over 20 states in 2014 to the recently announced expansion of DACA and the creation of a similar program for unlawfully present aliens whose children are U.S. citizens or lawful permanent resident aliens (LPRs). The report concludes by exploring how the pending litigation resembles, and differs from, the prior litigation.
Date: December 31, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Detainers: Legal Issues

Description: This report provides background information regarding the Immigration and Naturalization Service rules and regulations and discusses the "immigration detainer," a document by which U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) advises other law enforcement agencies that it seeks custody of individual aliens whom these agencies are detaining.
Date: April 24, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Ports of Entry

Description: This report reviews the legislative history of immigration inspections requirements and the entry-exit system. The report then describes the implementation of these provisions, including pre-travel screening, primary and secondary inspections, trusted traveler programs, outbound enforcement, and the entry-exit system. The final section of the report identifies a number of issues for Congress related to immigration admissions and enforcement at POEs.
Date: October 31, 2014
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief

Description: This report provides a brief explanation of the statutory basis of special immigrant juvenile (SIJ) status and how it has evolved. It also presents statistics on the number of children who have applied for and received SIJ status since FY2005. The report concludes with a discussion of the applicability of SIJ status for unaccompanied alien children.
Date: August 29, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraqi and Afghan Special Immigrant Visa Programs

Description: This report analyzes the special immigrant visa (SIV) classifications for Iraqis and Afghans within the context of both the larger Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) special immigrant category and selected other permanent admissions categories. It discusses the legislative changes to the individual Iraqi and Afghan special immigrant programs since their initial authorization, provides statistics on visa issuance, and considers challenges facing the programs today.
Date: September 12, 2014
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unaccompanied Alien Children: Potential Factors Contributing to Recent Immigration

Description: This report begins by describing the recent surge in unaccompanied child apprehensions. It discusses several factors widely associated with out-migration from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. The report then discusses three broad factors that may be attracting migrants to the United States: economic and educational opportunity, family reunification, and U.S. immigration policies. It concludes with caveats on the attribution of causes to this situation.
Date: July 3, 2014
Creator: Kandel, William A.; Bruno, Andorra; Meyer, Peter J.; Seelke, Clare Ribando; Taft-Morales, Maureen & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Description: This report reviews efforts to combat unauthorized migration across the Southwest border in the nearly three decades since the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) initiated the modern era in migration control. In reviewing such efforts, the report takes stock of the current state of border security and considers lessons that may be learned about enhanced enforcement at U.S. borders.
Date: January 16, 2014
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unaccompanied Alien Children: Demographics in Brief

Description: This report discusses children coming to the United States who are not accompanied by parents or legal guardians and who lack proper immigration documents has raised complex and competing sets of humanitarian concerns and immigration control issues. This report focuses on the demographics of unaccompanied alien children while they are in removal proceedings.
Date: September 24, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen & Morris, Austin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview

Description: This report opens with an analysis of the data of the recent surge in UAC crossing the border. It then discusses current policy on the treatment, care, and custody of the population. The processing and treatment of UAC is detailed, with a discussion of each agency that is involved with the population. The report then discusses both Administrative and Congressional action to deal with the current crisis. As this issue is still emerging, the report concludes with a series of questions related to UAC that remain unanswered.
Date: July 28, 2014
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa; Siskin, Alison & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unaccompanied Alien Children--Legal Issues: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses the questions regarding the number of children arriving at the United States southern border, their reasons for coming to the United States, and current and potential responses of the federal government and other entities to their arrival
Date: July 18, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Garcia, Michael John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends

Description: This report discusses the extent to which residents of the United States who are not U.S. citizens should be eligible for federally-funded public aid. This issue meets at the intersection of two major policy areas: immigration policy and welfare policy. This report deals with the four major federal means-tested benefit programs: the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant programs, and Medicaid.
Date: September 24, 2014
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asylum and Gang Violence: Legal Overview

Description: This report discusses the basis for asylum in International and U.S. Law. The recent increase in the number of unaccompanied alien children (UACs) apprehended at the border between Mexico and the United States has raised questions about the role that gang-related violence in Central America may play in determining whether such children are eligible for refugee status and asylum.
Date: September 5, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry

Description: This report reviews efforts to combat unauthorized migration across the Southwest border in the nearly three decades since the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) initiated the modern era in migration control. In reviewing such efforts, the report takes stock of the current state of border security and considers lessons that may be learned about enhanced enforcement at U.S. borders.
Date: December 31, 2014
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Noncitizens Under the Affordable Care Act

Description: This report provides information regarding the treatment of noncitizens under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) including definitions of "lawfully present," the health insurance mandate, exchanges, and ACA changes to Medicaid. It also discusses the verification of alien status under the ACA and related legislation in the 113th Congress.
Date: May 21, 2014
Creator: Siskin, Alison & Lunder, Erika K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department