Congressional Research Service Reports - 270 Matching Results

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9/11 Commission: Current Legislative Proposals for U.S. Immigration Law and Policy

Description: This report briefly discusses some of the major immigration areas under consideration in comprehensive reform proposals suggested by the 9/11 Commission, including asylum, biometric tracking systems, border security, document security, exclusion, immigration enforcement, and visa issuances. It refers to other CRS reports that discuss these issues in depth and will be updated as needed.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

9/11 Commission: Current Legislative Proposals for U.S. Immigration Law and Policy

Description: This report briefly discusses some of the major immigration areas under consideration in comprehensive reform proposals suggested by the 9/11 Commission, including asylum, biometric tracking systems, border security, document security, exclusion, immigration enforcement, and visa issuances. It refers to other CRS reports that discuss these issues in depth and will be updated as needed.
Date: October 18, 2004
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Wasem, Ruth Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR)

Description: This report introduces the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR) and the concerns out of which it grew, from the perspective of labor policy (not of immigration policy). American agricultural employers have long utilized foreign workers on a temporary basis, regarding them as an important manpower resource. Often employed at low wages and under adverse conditions, such alien workers, some argue, may compete unfairly with U.S. workers. To mitigate any "adverse effect" for the domestic workforce, a system of wage floors was developed that applies, variously, both to alien and citizen workers.
Date: April 5, 2004
Creator: Whittaker, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views

Description: The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims.
Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Authority to Enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) in the Wake of the Homeland Security Act: Legal Issues

Description: For decades, the administrative authority to interpret, implement, enforce, and adjudicate immigration law within the U.S. lay almost exclusively with one officer: the Attorney General. The most general statement of this power was found in §103(a)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA), the statute that comprehensively regulates immigration law in the United States. With the transfer of nearly all immigration functions to the Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003, however, §103(a)(1) of the INA has necessarily required various modifications to clarify the respective authorities newly obtained by the Secretary of Homeland Security and retained by the Attorney General.
Date: July 16, 2003
Creator: Viña, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised. This report will be updated as warranted.
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised.
Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Description: The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to improve border security is a technique that has garnered congressional attention. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress. This report is not intended to provide in-depth information regarding technical or military capabilities of UAVs, but to discuss their application at the border.
Date: January 2, 2004
Creator: Blazakis, Jason
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Apprehensions of “Other Than Mexican”Aliens

Description: As the United States Border Patrol (USBP) discharges its mission it encounters unauthorized aliens from around the world attempting to illegally enter the United States. In fiscal year (FY) 2004, USBP agents apprehended 1.16 million people attempting to enter the country illegally between official POE; 93% of these aliens were Mexican nationals. Because the vast majority of people apprehended each year by the USBP are Mexican nationals, the agency categorizes aliens as Mexicans or Other Than Mexicans (OTM). Over the past three years, OTM apprehensions have more than tripled nationwide and have been concentrated along the South Texas border. The reasons for this dramatic increase, and its geographical concentration in Texas, are not altogether clear.
Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas; Siskin, Alison & Viña, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

Description: Congress has been considering expanding the barriers currently deployed along the U.S. international land border. Currently, the United States Border Patrol (USBP) deploys fencing, which aims to impede the illegal entry of individuals, and vehicle barriers, which aim to impede the illegal entry of vehicles (but not individuals) along the border. A number of policy issues concerning border barriers generally and fencing specifically may be of interest to Congress, including, but not limited to: their effectiveness; their costs versus their benefits; their location; their design; and their potential diplomatic ramifications. Prominent bills include House-passed H.R. 4437 and H.R. 6061, and Senate-passed S. 2611, and H.R. 5631.
Date: September 21, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Viña, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

Description: This report analyzes the barriers that are currently being constructed and maintained along the border by the U.S. Border Patrol (USBP), including historical and future cost estimates and the policy issues involved. Because the current debate has largely focused on the deployment of fencing to the border, this report will focus on the policy issues surrounding the construction of border fencing.
Date: March 16, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.; Kim, Yule & Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: CRS Experts

Description: This report includes a table which provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to border security. Policy areas identified include: mission; border surveillance; foreign cooperation; immigration and foreign visitors; intelligence in border and transportation security; operational functions; trade and imports; and transportation systems.
Date: April 14, 2009
Creator: Lake, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Date: February 4, 2003
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Date: March 22, 2005
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues

Description: Some argue that this reorganization of border inspections has been long needed and is resulting in a more streamlined and efficient set of procedures at the border with a clear, single, chain of command. Others warn that the different types of inspections are quite complex in their own right and that the reorganization is exacerbating the conflicting priorities at the border, ultimately resulting in many more people and goods being sent to secondary inspections. This report, discusses a range of legal, administrative, and policy issues that are emerging with the implementation of the unified border inspections.
Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Lake, Jennifer E.; Seghetti, Lisa M.; Monke, James & Viña, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues

Description: Some argue that this reorganization of border inspections has been long needed and is resulting in a more streamlined and efficient set of procedures at the border with a clear, single, chain of command. Others warn that the different types of inspections are quite complex in their own right and that the reorganization is exacerbating the conflicting priorities at the border, ultimately resulting in many more people and goods being sent to secondary inspections. This report, which will not be updated, discusses a range of legal, administrative, and policy issues that are emerging with the implementation of the unified border inspections.
Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Lake, Jennifer E.; Seghetti, Lisa M.; Monke, James & Viña, Stephen R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Description: This report briefly describes the role of various agencies in securing the borders of the United States. These agencies are the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the United States Coast Guard, and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA).
Date: April 9, 2009
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States' borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the United States Coast Guard, and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). This report briefly describes each agency's role in securing our nation's borders.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Nunez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Description: This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which include the slow rate of integration between the United States Border Patrol's (USBP) biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border.
Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Description: This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which could include the slow rate of integration between the USBP’s biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border.
Date: May 10, 2005
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

Description: This report includes some issues for Congress to consider which could include the slow rate of integration between the USBP’s biometric database of illegal aliens and the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) biometric database of criminals and terrorists; the number of unauthorized aliens who die attempting to enter the country each year; the organized human smuggling rings that have proliferated as entering the country has become more difficult; and the threat posed by terrorists along the sparsely defended Northern border as well as the more porous Southwest border.
Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: U.S.-Canada Border Issues

Description: The September 11 terrorist attacks and continued threats of future attacks have directed Congress’s attention to U.S.-Canada border security-related issues. Both countries are striving to balance adequate border security with other issues such as the facilitation of legitimate cross-border travel and commerce, and protecting civil liberties. Congress has taken action (the USA PATRIOT Act, P.L. 107-56; and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002, P.L. 107-173) to increase the number of INS border patrol agents and inspectors at northern ports of entry and to provide these officials with additional technologically upgraded equipment.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department