Congressional Research Service Reports - 367 Matching Results

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A Primer on U.S. Immigration Policy

Description: This report provides a broad overview of U.S. immigration policy. The first section addresses policies governing how foreign nationals enter the United States either to reside permanently or to stay temporarily. Related topics within this section include visa issuance and security, forms of quasi-legal status, and naturalization. The second section discusses enforcement policies both for excluding foreign nationals from admission into the United States, as well as for detaining and removing those who enter the country unlawfully or who enter lawfully but subsequently commit crimes that make them deportable. The section also covers worksite enforcement and immigration fraud. The third section addresses policies for unauthorized aliens residing in the United States.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Update: What Constitutes "Sexual Abuse of a Minor" For Immigration Purposes

Description: This report provides an update of an earlier report from April 6, 2017, providing the final decision by the Supreme Court in the case of "Esquivel-Quintana v. Sessions". The case concerned the question of whether an immigrant alien who was convicted of sexual abuse of a minor where the minor was under 18 but at least 16 (in this case statutory rape in California between a 21 year old male and a 17 year female) was removable for an aggravated felony under immigration law. The Supreme Court ruled that the immigration law required the victim be under 16 before the removal of an alien for an aggravated felony would be allowable.
Date: June 7, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

H-2A and H-2B Temporary Worker Visas: Policy and Related Issues

Description: This report covers the H-2A agricultural guest worker program and the H-2B nonagricultural guest worker program. It explores the statutory and regulatory provisions that govern each program, focusing in particular on the much-debated labor certification process. It discusses past and present legislative efforts to reform the H-2A and H-2B programs and to create new guest worker visas, and identifies and analyzes key policy considerations to help inform future congressional action.
Date: May 10, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Government's Plenary Immigration Power Collides with the Constitutional Right to an Abortion (Part 2)

Description: This report is the secondt in a two-part series discussing "Garza v. Hargan", a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit involving a detained unaccompanied alien minor and the right to terminate a pregnancy. Debate among judges regarding the right of an unaccompanied alien minor to have an abortion when the minor was detained at the border and technically never formally entered the United States are discussed.
Date: November 27, 2017
Creator: Smith, Hillel R. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporary Protected Status: Overview and Current Issues

Description: This report discusses Temporary Protected Status (TPS) which is offered to nationals of designated countries who due to civil unrest, natural disasters, and armed conflicts cannot safely return home. This report begins by situating TPS in the context of humanitarian responses to migration. Another form of blanket relief from removal--Deferred Enforced Departure (DED)--is also described, as is the historical use of these relief mechanisms. The report then provides data on the countries currently designated for TPS, including the conditions that have contributed to their designation. Past legislation to provide lawful permanent resident status to certain TPS-designated foreign nationals is also described, and the report concludes with examples of activity in the 115th Congress related to TPS.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Wilson, Jill H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diversity Immigrant Visa Program

Description: This report discuses the Diversity Immigrant Visa program (DV) which is a lottery system that makes 50,000 visas available annually to immigrants from countries who had sent less than 50,000 immigrants to the U.S. over the last five years. Eligibility, the application and admission process, statistics on places of origin, and legislative proposals are discussed.
Date: November 9, 2017
Creator: Wilson, Jill H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Government's Plenary Immigration Power Collides with the Constitutional Right to an Abortion (Part 1)

Description: This report is the first in a two-part series discussing "Garza v. Hargan", a decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit involving a detained unaccompanied alien minor and the right to terminate a pregnancy. The facts of the case and a discussion of the court's decision and whether the Health and Human Services Department policy regarding abortions unduly burdens a woman's right to an abortion is discussed.
Date: November 27, 2017
Creator: Smith, Hillel R. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy

Description: This report discusses the refugee admissions process and refugee number caps for the 2018 fiscal year. For FY2018, the worldwide refugee ceiling is 45,000. The FY2018 regional allocations are, as follows: Africa (19,000), East Asia (5,000), Europe and Central Asia (2,000), Latin America/Caribbean (1,500), and Near East/South Asia (17,500). Refugee admissions in FY2017 totaled 53,716.
Date: November 7, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Immigration Officer's Authority to Apprehend and Remove Aliens: Questions and Answers in Brief

Description: This report provides brief answers to some of the questions regarding immigration agents' authority to apprehend and remove aliens; these questions were raised by reports that U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents conducted enforcement actions in at least six states during the week of February 6, 2017.
Date: February 13, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plan to Restrict Federal Grants to "Sanctuary Jurisdictions" Raises Legal Questions

Description: This report provides a description of Executive Order (EO) 13768 "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States" issued on January 25, 2017 by President Trump. It highlights, in particular, potential questions about how the EO could be construed in regard to "sanctuary cities" and briefly discusses the claims made by those jurisdictions challenging the EO.
Date: February 14, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of "Travel Ban" Litigation and Recent Developments

Description: This report provides an overview of the series of three executive actions -- (the first two taking the form of executive orders, and the third issued as a presidential proclamation) commonly referred to as the "Travel Ban," which restrict the entry of specified categories of non-U.S. nationals (aliens) into the United States -- as well as the litigation related to those executive actions.
Date: October 23, 2017
Creator: Smith, Hillel R. & Harrington, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rescission of the Wet-Foot/Dry-Foot Policy as to Aliens from Cuba Raises Legal Questions

Description: This report provides answers to frequently asked questions about the legal implications of the Obama Administration's changes in policy as to Cuban citizens and nationals with the announcement of the rescission of the wet-foot/dry-foot immigration policy.
Date: January 18, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alien Registration Requirements: Obama Administration Removes Certain Regulations, but Underlying Statutory Authority Remains

Description: This report briefly surveys the legal authorities that underlay the implementation of the National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS), as well as the authorities that remain available to the Executive notwithstanding the recent rule change by President Obama on December 23, 2016 which removed the regulations for the system.
Date: January 5, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

President Trump's Proclamation on Enhanced Vetting of Foreign Nationals from Designated Countries

Description: This report discusses President Trump's Proclamation on on Enhanced Vetting for Foreign Nationals from Designated Countries which was issued on September 24, 2017 and is a newly revised version of the previously blocked executive orders which blocked entry to people from certain Muslim-majority countries and refugees temporarily. The new list of countries with travel bans or special scrutiny consists of Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria, Yemen, North Korea, Chad, and Venezuela (only certain government officials). These countries were selected based on Department of Homeland Security evaluations on identity management strategies, information sharing, and national security and public safety risk. The types of bans for each countries and exceptions are also discussed.
Date: September 29, 2017
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the Federal Government's Power to Exclude Aliens

Description: This report provides an overview of the legislative and executive powers to exclude aliens. First, the report discusses a gatekeeping legal principle that frames those powers: nonresident aliens outside the United States cannot challenge their exclusion from the country. Second, the report analyzes the extent to which the constitutional and statutory rights of U.S. citizens limit the exclusion power under the "facially legitimate and bona fide" test of Kleindienst v. Mandel. The report concludes with a case study. The report applies the principles of the Supreme Court's immigration jurisprudence to the two primary claims that U.S. persons and entities have pressed against the President's revised executive order in the "Travel Ban" litigation: (1) that the revised order violates the Establishment Clause; and (2) that the revised order violates the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).
Date: September 27, 2017
Creator: Harrington, Ben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unauthorized Childhood Arrivals: Legislative Options

Description: This report discusses bills proposed in Congress that either would provide temporary protection from removal or paths to citizenship for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipients in the wake of the announcement of the phasing out of the DACA program.
Date: September 14, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reception and Placement of Refugees in the United States

Description: This report discusses the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP), which is managed by the Department of State (DOS), responsible for resettling refugees from around the world in the United States.
Date: June 21, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about the DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) program and the recent announcement on September 5, 2017 that the program was being rescinded.
Date: September 6, 2017
Creator: Bruno, Andorra
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Legal and Practical Effects of Private Immigration Legislation and Recent Policy Changes

Description: This report discusses the use of private immigration bills in Congress which allow Congress to grant permanent residency status to an immigrant who is not eligible under normal immigration procedures but that they deem to have extraordinary equities in the United States. It also addresses the announcement of new rules by the Immigration and Citizenship Enforcement Department (ICE) that limit stays of removal granted to immigrants who are proposed beneficiaries of a private immigration bill in Congress.
Date: June 30, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The End of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program: Some Immediate Takeaways

Description: This report outlines some of the major implications of ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) Program, including common questions about what happens to current DACA recipients, and possibilities for Congress to consider.
Date: September 8, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Barriers Along the U.S. Borders: Key Authorities and Requirements

Description: This report discusses key statutory authorities and requirements governing the Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) construction of barriers along the U.S. borders. It also includes appendixes listing federal laws that have been waived by DHS in furtherance of border construction projects.
Date: January 27, 2017
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues

Description: This report is a brief overview of current policies regarding temporary protected status (TPS), which is relief from removal under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). It includes information about humanitarian migrants, temporary protected status, other blanket forms of relief, nationalities receiving protections, and issues with TPS, as well as recent legislation.
Date: January 17, 2017
Creator: Argueta, Carla N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sanctuary Jurisdictions and Criminal Aliens: In Brief

Description: This report examines the interplay between the federal government (i.e., Immigration and Customs Enforcement/ICE) and state and local jurisdictions in enforcing immigration law, with a specific focus on noncitizens who have been convicted of a crime. It explores major programs and federal resources available to state and local law enforcement agencies that cooperate with ICE to enforce immigration law.
Date: January 10, 2017
Creator: Kandel, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Executive Authority to Exclude Aliens: In Brief

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Executive's authority under these provisions of Section 212(f) in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). It also briefly describes other provisions.
Date: January 23, 2017
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department