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Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions

Description: Congressional interest in Africa seems certain to continue, not only because the region is affected by a number of serious problems, some of which could have grave humanitarian consequences, but also because of the potential Africa offers for U.S. trade and investment should these problems ease. Africa's problems and prospects will likely assure continuing constituent interest as well, stimulated in part by the churches, relief organizations, and other non-governmental organizations active on African issues. This report is intended to introduce congressional readers to the region by providing an overview of Africa's history, a summary of U.S. policy toward Africa, and a listing of principal congressional actions affecting the region. The paper concludes with suggestions for further reading and a list of selected Congressional Research Service (CRS) products.
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

Description: In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax.
Date: August 9, 2001
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-2002

Description: This report discusses legislation regarding commodities and price supports. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to administer various price and income support programs for U.S. farmers. Some standing authority for these programs is provided by three permanent laws, from 1938, 1948, and 1949. However, Congress frequently alters the basic provisions of these laws. The omnibus law now guiding farm support (through 2007) is the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.
Date: May 31, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A History of Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Taxes

Description: In this report, the history of the federal transfer taxes, has been divided into four parts: (1) the federal death and gift taxes utilized in the period 1789 to 1915; (2) the development of the modern estate and gift taxes from 1916 through 1975; (3) the creation and refinement of a unified estate and gift tax system, supplemented by a generation-skipping transfer tax; and (4) the phase out and repeal of the estate and generation-skipping taxes, with the gift tax being retained as a device to protect the integrity of the income tax.
Date: April 9, 2003
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places.
Date: August 11, 2003
Creator: Boren, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Alien Tort Statute: Legislative History and Executive Branch Views

Description: The report provides a historical overview of court decisions interpreting the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), also known as the Alien Tort Claims Act (ACTA). The report then provides an overview of the positions taken by the U.S. government in published opinions of the Attorney General and in court briefs related to ATS claims.
Date: October 2, 2003
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction

Description: Although there was widespread international disagreement in the period leading up to the U.S.-led war in Iraq, forty-nine countries demonstrated support for the coalition’s actions in Iraq by publicly agreeing to be included in the Bush Administration’s “coalition of the willing." This report tracks countries’ current political stances on the postwar situation, as well as major foreign monetary and military contributions to postwar Iraq.
Date: December 18, 2003
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A; Sharp, Jeremy; Caesar, Melanie; Frost, Adam & Machart, Helene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress

Description: This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992. Focusing on tensions in the political and legislative system, it delineates congressional achievements — chief of which was the Freedom Support Act. The legislation that was ultimately produced became the basis on which future debate would be conducted regarding how the United States could continue to influence events in the former Soviet Union and assist its transition to an open market economy and democratic institutions.
Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historic Preservation: Background and Funding

Description: This report summarizes the federal role in historic preservation. It provides descriptions of and funding information for some of the major preservation programs, including the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and the National Register for Historic Places. Some Members of Congress have given historic preservation programs close scrutiny and have recommended that historic preservation activities be supported increasingly by the private sector.
Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department