Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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A Brief History of Veterans' Education Benefits and Their Value

Description: This report reviews the evolution of veterans' education benefit programs and describes the types of education benefits that have been made available under these programs. It also examines how changes in the estimated value of these benefits compares with changes in average college prices, and provides a discussion of the interaction between veterans' education benefits and federal student aid benefits made available under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), as amended.
Date: June 25, 2008
Creator: Smole, David P. & Loane, Shannon S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government

Description: This report describes Internet resources on internships, fellowships, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. This report will be updated annually.
Date: January 29, 2007
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Issues Related to Funding for Religious Schools in P.L. 111-5, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Description: This report will provide a brief overview of the prohibition on the use of funds by institutions of higher education, including proposals considered by the House and Senate before the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5) was enacted. It will also analyze the constitutionality of the distribution of federal money to religious schools in the context of common questions raised by these provisions.
Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research

Description: While the federal government continues to be the primary supporter of university based research and development (R&D), the financial composition of support for university-based research has changed considerably over the past 31 years. This report discusses national R&D expenditures for university based research, which reached $36.333 billion in 2002.
Date: June 4, 2004
Creator: Davey, Michael E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Description: Science and technology policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for and encouragement of scientific and engineering research and development, the use of scientific and technical knowledge to enhance the nations' response to societal challenges, and the education of Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This report describes the science and engineering community, policymakers' interest in that community and its various endeavors, and the organizations that provide science and technology policy advice to agencies of the federal government and/or Members of Congress.
Date: May 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science and Technology Policymaking: A Primer

Description: This report provides a basic understanding of science and technology policy including the nature of S&T policy, how scientific and technical knowledge is useful for public policy decisionmaking, and an overview of the key stakeholders in science and technology policy.
Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Description: This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs.
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Apling, Richard N.; Irwin, Paul M.; Smole, David P.; Mercer, Charmaine & Kuenzi, Jeffrey J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tax Treatment of Employer Educational Assistance for the Benefit of Employees

Description: Educational assistance offered by employers to their employees may be exempt from federal income tax under Section 127 and Section 132 of the Internal Revenue Code. Section 127 is the employer educational assistance exclusion; Section 132, the fringe benefit exclusion for working condition benefits (e.g., job-related eduction) among other benefits. Congress established the two tax provisions well before it enacted to her higher education tax benefits meant to assist taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents -- regardless of employment status -- pay current educational expenses incurred while obtaining postsecondary degrees and undertaking lifelong learning.
Date: July 3, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concurrent Enrollment Programs

Description: Initiated in part as a proposal to reform U.S. high schools, concurrent enrollment programs enable high school aged students to take college level course work and receive college credit while enrolled in high school. Concurrent enrollment programs can be best described as a secondary/postsecondary school hybrid. This report provides a brief history of these programs and a description of the different types of programs, including participation data.
Date: December 14, 2004
Creator: Mercer, Charmaine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

Description: The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi.
Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Date: April 19, 2002
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elementary and Secondary Education: Accountability and Flexibility in Federal Aid Proposals

Description: The 107th Congress is considering proposals to amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Much of the debate over these proposals has been focused on issues related to state and local accountability for, and flexibility in the use of, federal aid funds. Current federal elementary and secondary education assistance programs have a broad range of accountability requirements, including: targeting of resources on specific “high need” pupil groups, localities, or schools; limitations on the authorized uses of funds; fiscal accountability requirements, such as maintenance of effort; procedural requirements, such as parental participation or equitable treatment of pupils attending non-public schools; staff qualifications; reporting; outcome; and evaluation requirements.
Date: September 6, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department