Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Health-Related Tax Expenditures: Overview and Analysis
This report analyzes health-related tax expenditures together at the budget function level, rather than focusing on the size of any single provision. To provide some insights into common questions about health-related expenditures, this report analyzes historical data on health-related tax expenditure estimates published by the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).
Discretionary Spending Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA)
This report examines the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) effects on discretionary spending. It first discusses all the ACA authorizations (and reauthorizations) of appropriations for grant and other programs; this information, along with actual funding amounts, is summarized in a series of tables. The report then reviews the ACA administrative costs borne by CMS and the IRS.
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system, and the annual updates and discusses recent proposals to address this issue.
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report provides a background on the Medicare fee schedule, the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) system and the annual updates, and discusses recent proposal to address this issue.
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage
This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
Self-Insured Health Insurance Coverage
This report provides background information on private health insurance coverage, state and federal regulation of private coverage, and self-insured health plans. It includes data on the prevalence of self-insurance and discusses the employer decision to self-insure. Lastly, it describes selected private health insurance provisions under federal health reform, and application of such provisions on self-insured plans.
Transitional Medical Assistance (TMA) Under Medicaid
This report provides an overview of transitional medical assistance (TMA). While Section 1925 of the Social Security Act outlines the provisions requiring states to provide TMA for up to 12 months, states have considerable flexibility in designing and implementing their TMA programs.
Health Savings Accounts: Overview of Rules for 2012
This report provides a summary of the principal rules governing Health Savings Accounts (HSAs), covering such matters as eligibility, qualifying health insurance, contributions, and withdrawals.
Medicaid Expenditures, FY2003 and FY2004
This report discusses the federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP), which is the percentage of Medicaid benefit costs paid for by the federal government.
Medicare Primer
This report provides an overview of Medicare, the nation's federal insurance program, which pays for covered health care services of qualified beneficiaries.
Medicare Physician Payment Updates and the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) System
This report discusses the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR), which is the statutory method for determining the annual updates to the Medicare physician fee schedule. The SGR system was established because of the concern that the Medicare fee schedule itself would not adequately constrain overall increases in spending for physicians’ services.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: President’s FY2013 Budget
This report summarizes the President's budget estimates for each section of the CMS budget. Then, for each legislative proposal included in the President's budget, this report provides a description of current law and the President's proposal. The explanations of the President's legislative proposals are grouped by the following program areas: Medicare, Medicaid, program integrity, and health insurance programs.
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program.
Health Savings Accounts
No Description Available.
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage Under COBRA
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Continuation Coverage under COBRA
No Description Available.
Federal Drug Price Negotiation: Implications for Medicare Part D
This report discusses what it means for the federal government to “negotiate” drug prices under existing public programs, the arguments for and against such activities, and some implications for the pharmaceutical industry, Medicare beneficiaries, and others if similar federal involvement were to occur on behalf of the Medicare Part D program.
Final Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Rules on Retiree Health Plans and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act
No Description Available.
Long-Term Care: What Direction for Public Policy?
No Description Available.
Long-Term Care: What Direction for Public Policy?
No Description Available.
Health Care and Markets
Health care spending is one of the most rapidly growing portions of the federal budget. Projections suggest if the rapid growth in health care costs is not curtailed, governments at all levels will face an uncomfortable choice between significant cuts in other spending priorities or major tax increases. This report examines the economic justification for government intervention and involvement in health care markets.
The Japanese Health Care System
This report provides (1) a description of the coverage, benefits, financing and administration of the Japanese health insurance plans; (2) a discussion of the way in which reimbursement levels for health care providers are determined; and (3) an analysis of the way in which the provision of health care system is organized in Japan.
The Affordable Care Act and Small Business: Economic Issues
This report explains how employer-sponsored insurance can be used to address concerns about health insurance coverage and cost. Then, it summarizes the three ACA provisions most relevant to small businesses. Also, it analyzes these provisions for their potential effects on small businesses. Last, this report presents several approaches that could address some concerns associated with these provisions (particularly the employer penalty).
Treating Ebola Patients in the United States: Health Care Delivery Implications
This report discusses the recent response to Ebola patients in the United States. While the U.S. health care system has the resources to effectively identify and treat Ebola cases, a situation that is novel, emergent, and resource-intensive may test the system's ability to effectively mobilize those resources.
Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): Emerging Public Health Threats and Quarantine and Isolation
This report the international saga of Andrew Speaker, a traveler thought to have XDR-TB, a drug-resistant form of tuberculosis, placed a spotlight on existing mechanisms to contain contagious disease threats and raised numerous legal and public health issues. It also discusses the application of various public health measures available to contain an emerging public health threat posed by an individual who ignores medical advice and attempts to board an airplane or take other forms of public transportation.
Congress Faces Calls to Address Expiring ACA Appropriations
This report discusses the Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in March 2010, which appropriated billions of dollars of mandatory funds to support grant programs and other activities authorized by the law.
H.R. 2: The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009
This report summarizes changes to current law across the major provisions of H.R. 2 that would occur if The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) were enacted.
Beverage Industry Pledges to Reduce Americans' Drink Calories
This report briefly covers recent initiatives by leading beverage companies to curb the obesity epidemic.
Medicare: Part B Premiums
This report examines the history of the Medicare Part B Premium. The report considers issues including the changing factors that go into determining the premium. The report also discusses the comparative cost adjustment program, the Part B deductible, and the Part A premium.
Ebola: Selected Legal Issues
Several West African countries are currently grappling with an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Here in the United States, where Ebola is not endemic, a handful of EVD cases have been diagnosed, and domestic transmission of the virus has occurred in only two cases to date. This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding measures to prevent transmission of Ebola virus and the civil rights of individuals affected by the disease.
The Affordable Care Act and Small Business: Economic Issues
This report explains how employer-sponsored insurance can be used to address concerns about health insurance coverage and cost. Then, it summarizes the three Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions most relevant to small businesses. Also, it analyzes these provisions for their potential effects on small businesses. Last, this report presents several approaches that could address some concerns associated with these provisions (particularly the employer penalty).
Health Coverage Tax Credit
The report describes the expired eligibility criteria, as well as the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may have been applied. It discusses past federal and state roles in administering the HCTC program, and it summarizes analyses on the credit's effectiveness in reaching targeted populations and related equity and efficiency issues. In addition, the report includes a short discussion of relevant current law and summarizes statutory history of the HCTC program.
Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2015
This report describes the eligibility criteria applicable to the premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies, and the calculation method for the credit and subsidy amounts. It also highlights selected issues addressed in the final regulation and guidance on premium credits and indicates the status of implementation, where relevant data is available.
Private Health Insurance Provisions of S. 1796, America's Healthy Future Act of 2009
This report summarizes key provisions affecting private health insurance in S. 1796, America's Healthy Future Act of 2009, as ordered reported by the Senate Committee on Finance on October 19, 2009.
Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Provisions in Affordable Health Care for America Act (H.R. 3962)
This report summarizes the major provisions affecting Medicaid and CHIP in H.R. 3962 (as passed), including modifications made by the manager's amendment. The report focuses on provisions in Division B, Title VII--Medicaid and CHIP, plus selected provisions in Title IX--Miscellaneous Provisions. It also describes selected sections of Titles I and II of Division D, the Indian Health Care Improvement Act Amendments of 2009, related to improving access to Medicaid and CHIP for American Indians and Alaskan Natives.
A Comparative Analysis of Private Health Insurance Provisions of H.R. 3962 and S.Amdt. 2786 to H.R. 3590
This report compares many of the private health insurance provisions of H.R. 3962 and the Senate Amendment. For each of the major private health insurance reforms, the report first gives a narrative description of the context and current law, then describes where H.R. 3962 and the Senate Amendment make similar reforms and how their approaches differ.
Medicaid Financing and Expenditures
This report provides an overview of Medicaid’s financing structure, including both federal and state financing issues. The Medicaid expenditures section of the report discusses economic factors affecting Medicaid, state variability in spending, and projected program spending. Other issues that are examined include congressional proposals to turn Medicaid into a block grant program, federal deficit reduction proposals affecting Medicaid, and state fiscal conditions affecting Medicaid financing and services.
The Affordable Care Act and Small Business: Economic Issues
This report explains how employer-sponsored insurance can be used to address concerns about health insurance coverage and cost. Then, it summarizes the three ACA provisions most relevant to small businesses. Also, it analyzes these provisions for their potential effects on small businesses. Last, this report presents several approaches that could address some concerns associated with these provisions (particularly the employer penalty).
TRICARE and VA Health Care: Impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)
This report addresses key questions concerning how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) affects TRICARE and VA health care.
U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Malaria: Basic Facts
This report outlines basic facts related to global malaria, including characteristics of the epidemic and U.S. legislation, programs, funding, and partnerships related to the global response to malaria.
U.S. Response to the Global Threat of Malaria: Basic Facts
This report outlines basic facts related to global malaria, including characteristics of the epidemic and U.S. legislation, programs, funding, and partnerships related to the global response to malaria.
Public Health and Emergency Preparedness: CRS Experts
This table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to public health and emergency preparedness.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Mental Health Problems in the Military: Oversight Issues for Congress
This report discusses the prevalence of different psychological health concerns within the Armed Forces, current mental health screening and treatments, and DOD responses.
Medicare's Hospice Benefit
This report discusses Medicare's hospice benefit, which was provides care that specializes in the relief of the pain and symptoms associated with a terminal illness and the provision of supportive and counseling services to patients and their families during the final stages of a patient's illness and death.
The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential ACA Employer Penalty
This report describes the potential employer penalties related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
Medicaid: The Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)
This report examines the formula that determines the federal government's share of Medicaid costs for most services, which is established in statute; states must contribute the remaining portion of costs in order to qualify for federal funds.