Congressional Research Service Reports - 515 Matching Results

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Health Coverage Tax Credit
The report describes the expired eligibility criteria, as well as the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may have been applied. It discusses past federal and state roles in administering the HCTC program, and it summarizes analyses on the credit's effectiveness in reaching targeted populations and related equity and efficiency issues. In addition, the report includes a short discussion of relevant current law and summarizes statutory history of the HCTC program.
Health Insurance Premium Credits in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2015
This report describes the eligibility criteria applicable to the premium tax credits and cost-sharing subsidies, and the calculation method for the credit and subsidy amounts. It also highlights selected issues addressed in the final regulation and guidance on premium credits and indicates the status of implementation, where relevant data is available.
Private Health Insurance Provisions of S. 1796, America's Healthy Future Act of 2009
This report summarizes key provisions affecting private health insurance in S. 1796, America's Healthy Future Act of 2009, as ordered reported by the Senate Committee on Finance on October 19, 2009.
Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Provisions in Affordable Health Care for America Act (H.R. 3962)
This report summarizes the major provisions affecting Medicaid and CHIP in H.R. 3962 (as passed), including modifications made by the manager's amendment. The report focuses on provisions in Division B, Title VII--Medicaid and CHIP, plus selected provisions in Title IX--Miscellaneous Provisions. It also describes selected sections of Titles I and II of Division D, the Indian Health Care Improvement Act Amendments of 2009, related to improving access to Medicaid and CHIP for American Indians and Alaskan Natives.
A Comparative Analysis of Private Health Insurance Provisions of H.R. 3962 and S.Amdt. 2786 to H.R. 3590
This report compares many of the private health insurance provisions of H.R. 3962 and the Senate Amendment. For each of the major private health insurance reforms, the report first gives a narrative description of the context and current law, then describes where H.R. 3962 and the Senate Amendment make similar reforms and how their approaches differ.
Medicaid Coverage of Long-Term Services and Supports
This report provides a description of the various statutory authorities that either require or otherwise allow states to cover LTSS under Medicaid. The Appendix provides a brief legislative history of Medicaid LTSS from Medicaid’s enactment and initial coverage requirements for institutional care through the evolution of HCBS options available to states.
Medicaid and Graduate Medical Education
This report discusses Medicaid coverage of graduate medical education (GME) costs. GME costs are difficult to determine because teaching occurs in the context of patient care and research. There are direct GME (DGME) costs, which include residents' stipends, payments to supervising physicians, and direct program administration costs.
Contractors and HealthCare.gov: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
This report provides answers to 20 frequently asked questions regarding contractors and HealthCare.gov, the federal online health insurance portal called for by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) (P.L. 111-148, as amended). Over 50 contractors, including CGI Federal and Quality Software Services, Inc. (QSSI), helped in building the site, which was reportedly largely unusable when it first became available to the public on October 1, 2013.
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions
This report responds to a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) identified to address some of the major updates included in the proposed rule. The FAQs summarize provisions such as the introduction of a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR), guidance on enrolling the long-term services and supports (LTSS) population in managed care, and network adequacy.
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)
This report first discusses the cost and financing for long-term care (LTC) services as well as the current market for private LTC insurance. It then details those CLASS program requirements for enrollment, premiums, eligibility, benefits, administration, and oversight. The report also discusses federal budget implications, as estimated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Finally, the report provides a timeline of the CLASS program provisions enacted under PPACA.
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a law of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this provision in light of a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. Finally, this report discusses whether the exceptions to the individual responsibility requirement to purchase health insurance satisfy First Amendment freedom of religion protections.
Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis
This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a proposal of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this type of proposal if there were to be a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth Amendment. Finally, this report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion.
Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors: What Are the Human Health Risks?
This report discusses the human health risks, specifically from endocrine disruptors that are chemical compounds in drugs, food, consumer products, or the ambient environment that can interfere with internal biological processes of animals that normally are regulated by their hormones.
Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3962
This report discusses health care reform, which was at the top of the domestic policy agenda for the 111th Congress, driven by concerns about the growing ranks of the uninsured and the unsustainable growth in spending on health care and health insurance.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance and Expenses: Overview of Current Law and Legislation
This report discusses how tax policy affects health insurance and health care spending.
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit.
Health Care Spending: Context and Policy
This report seeks to put health spending in context. Health care costs and spending are persistent concerns for the Congress. On one hand, policymakers worry about access to care and the burden of health costs on household and employer budgets. On the other hand, rising costs put growing pressure on the federal budget from Medicare, Medicaid, and tax expenditures for private health insurance.
Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State
This report discusses bills related to Medicare benefits, which include additional assistance for low-income beneficiaries. The assistance would have been in the form of reduced, subsidized or eliminated premiums, deductibles and other cost-sharing. Proposals in the 108th Congress will probably also include some of these features for low-income beneficiaries.
Eligibility and Determination of Health Insurance Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies: In Brief
Certain individuals without access to subsidized health insurance coverage may be eligible for premium tax credits, as established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended). This report examines these tax credits and their eligibility requirements, as well as cost-sharing subsidies.
Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions regarding the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which was established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and aims to foster the creation of CO-OPs--nonprofit, member-run health insurance issuers that sell health plans in states in which they are licensed.
The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential Employer Penalty
This report describes potential employer penalties as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer-Sponsored Health Coverage: In Brief
This report provides an overview of the excise tax. The report includes cost estimates for the excise tax and explores the excise tax's relationship with the tax advantages for employer-sponsored health coverage. The information in this report is based on statute and two notices issued by the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
This report provides background information about the private health insurance market, including market segments and regulation. It then describes each ACA market reform, grouped under the following categories: obtaining coverage, keeping coverage, cost of purchasing coverage, covered services, cost-sharing limits, consumer assistance and other health care protections, and plan requirements related to health care providers.
The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential ACA Employer Penalty
This report describes the potential employer penalties related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues
This report discusses the following: Medicaid’s rules on eligibility, benefits, and financing in the context of current questions and issues raised by Hurricane Katrina. Recent state actions in response to Medicaid issues raised by the hurricane. Federal Medicaid waiver authority, including information on current activity in this area and the New York Disaster Relief Medicaid waiver granted in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Current federal legislation related to Medicaid and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts.
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President’s FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal.
AIDS: An Overview of Issues
This report discusses the many difficult policy dilemmas associated with the AIDS epidemic, including past Congressional funding to support AIDS research and education efforts, strategies for controlling the spread of the AIDS virus, and methods and resources available for the care and treatment of persons with AIDS.
AIDS: An Overview of Issues
This report discusses the many difficult policy dilemmas associated with the AIDS epidemic, including past Congressional funding to support AIDS research and education efforts, strategies for controlling the spread of the AIDS virus, and methods and resources available for the care and treatment of persons with AIDS.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996: Guidance on Frequently Asked Questions
No Description Available.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): Public Health Situation and U.S. Response
No Description Available.
Health Insurance: Federal Data Sources for Analyses of the Uninsured
Given the various reasons individuals lack health insurance coverage, analysis of the effectiveness of a proposal to reduce the number of uninsured (such as those discussed above) requires examining characteristics of individuals with and without health insurance coverage. Numerous sources of data have emerged over time that support estimates of the uninsured. However, each data source differs in how it collects information from individuals, as well as the amount of information it collects related to health insurance status. This report outlines the major advantages and limitations of four federally administered surveys — in providing estimates of the uninsured population.
Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees
This report provides an introduction to demographics of the retiree population. The report discusses health insurance coverage for retirees and reasons for eroding coverage and issues, as well as legislative proposals.
Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid
Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program.
The Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC): In Brief
This report describes the eligibility criteria for the Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC) and the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may be applied. The tax credit's purpose is to make the purchase of health insurance more affordable for eligible individuals. The report also briefly describes the administration of the HCTC program and receipt of the credit by eligible taxpayers; it concludes with a summary of the HCTC's statutory history.
Medicare's Skilled Nursing Facility Benefit
No Description Available.
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the "Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987" (H.R. 2470, as passed by the House July 22, 1987) and the "Medicare Catastrophic Loss Prevention Act of 1987" (S. 1127, as passed by the Senate Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)
Catastrophic Health Insurance: Comparison of the Major Provisions of the “Medicare Catastrophic Protection Act of 1987” (H.R. 2470, as passed by t h e House July 22, 1987) and the "MEDICARE CATASTROPHIC LOSS PREVENTION ACT OF 1987" (S. 1127, as reported by the S e n a t e Finance Committee, July 27, 1987)
Budget Reconciliation FY2006: Provisions Affecting the Medicaid Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP)
The federal medical assistance percentage (FMAP) is the rate at which states are reimbursed for most Medicaid service expenditures. The FY2006 budget reconciliation bills passed by the House (H.R. 4241) and Senate (S. 1932) include provisions that would affect state FMAPs for Medicaid in a number of ways. This report describes these provisions and estimates their impact on FY2006 FMAPs.
Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees
With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees.
Health Insurance Coverage for Retirees
With the retirement of the baby boom generation looming ahead, employers offering coverage to their retired workers will face a huge future financial commitment. Some employers have already reduced or eliminated their commitment to insure their retirees. Recent trends indicate that retiree health benefits are increasingly subject to higher beneficiary cost-sharing. Further, among employers who provide health insurance for current retirees, their current workers are less likely to be guaranteed these benefits upon retirement. This report discusses issues regarding health insurance coverage for retirees.
Medicare: Selected Prescription Drug Proposals in the 107th Congress
Medicare, the nationwide health insurance program for the aged and disabled, does not cover most outpatient prescription drugs. On several occasions, the Congress has considered providing coverage for at least a portion of beneficiaries’ drug costs. The issue received renewed attention in the 106th Congress. However, there was no consensus on how the coverage should be structured. This report provides a side-by-side comparison of bills introduced in the 107th Congress that have received the most attention.
Health Care Flexible Spending Accounts
No Description Available.
Health Insurance Coverage: Characteristics of the Insured and Uninsured Populations in 2007
Based on data from the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey (CPS), 45.7 million people in the United States had no health insurance in 2007 — a decrease of approximately 1.3 million people when compared with 2006. This report briefly examines the characteristics of this uninsured population.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
No Description Available.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
No Description Available.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
No Description Available.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
No Description Available.
Tax Benefits for Health Insurance: Current Legislation
No Description Available.