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Public Health and Emergency Preparedness: CRS Experts

Description: This table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to public health and emergency preparedness.
Date: February 10, 2011
Creator: Lister, Sarah A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential ACA Employer Penalty

Description: This report describes the potential employer penalties related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended) as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
Date: September 1, 2015
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Provisions of the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762

Description: This report includes a table listing all provisions in H.R. 3762 and the Senate amendment to H.R. 3762 that would amend or repeal Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions. It also provides a brief explanation of the provisions included in the Senate Amendment to H.R. 3762.
Date: February 1, 2016
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC): In Brief

Description: This report describes the eligibility criteria for the Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC) and the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may be applied. The tax credit's purpose is to make the purchase of health insurance more affordable for eligible individuals. The HCTC has a sunset date of January 1, 2020. The report also briefly describes the administration of the HCTC program and receipt of the credit by eligible taxpayers; it concludes with a summary of the HCTC's statutory history.
Date: February 18, 2016
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Use of Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) in Federal Health Programs

Description: This report explores how modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is defined differently across health programs such as Medicare, the health insurance exchanges under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and Medicaid. It also discusses why MAGI is used, and how it is applied, specific to each program. The report covers that MAGI is used to determine (1) penalty amounts owed if a person does not comply with the individual mandate or whether an individual is exempt from the individual mandate; (2) eligibility for and the amount of a premium credit to purchase coverage through a health insurance exchange; and (3) Medicaid income eligibility for certain populations.
Date: February 25, 2016
Creator: Baumrucker, Evelyne P.; Davis, Patricia A.; Fernandez, Bernadette; Mach, Annie L. & Pettit, Carol A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report discusses the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), P.L. 111-148, as amended, Congress enacted a “minimum coverage provision,” which compels certain individuals to have a minimum level of health insurance. This report provides an analysis of the constitutionality of this provision requiring individuals to obtain health insurance.
Date: April 6, 2012
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Health, Workforce, Quality, and Related Provisions in H.R. 3590, as Passed by the Senate

Description: This report summarizes the workforce, prevention, quality, and related provisions in H.R. 3590, as passed by the Senate. It begins with some background on health care delivery reform, followed by an overview of the report’s content and organization
Date: March 1, 2010
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen & Williams, Erin D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues

Description: This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit.
Date: March 14, 2013
Creator: Talaga, Scott R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Proposed Rule on Medicaid Managed Care: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report responds to a series of frequently asked questions (FAQs) identified to address some of the major updates included in the proposed rule. The FAQs summarize provisions such as the introduction of a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR), guidance on enrolling the long-term services and supports (LTSS) population in managed care, and network adequacy.
Date: July 15, 2015
Creator: Blom, Kirstin B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Community Living Assistance Services and Supports (CLASS) Provisions in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)

Description: This report first discusses the cost and financing for long-term care (LTC) services as well as the current market for private LTC insurance. It then details those CLASS program requirements for enrollment, premiums, eligibility, benefits, administration, and oversight. The report also discusses federal budget implications, as estimated by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Finally, the report provides a timeline of the CLASS program provisions enacted under PPACA.
Date: January 5, 2011
Creator: Mulvey, Janemarie & Colello, Kirsten J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to enact the minimum essential coverage requirement contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), as well as how a court might analyze this provision if challenged based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. This report discusses whether there must be exceptions to a requirement to purchase health insurance based on First Amendment freedom of religion, and finally, discusses some of the legal challenges to this federal requirement.
Date: December 16, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Requiring Individuals to Obtain Health Insurance: A Constitutional Analysis

Description: This report first analyzes the authority of Congress to pass a law of this nature, as well as how a court could analyze this provision in light of a constitutional challenge based on various provisions of the Fifth and Tenth Amendments. Finally, this report discusses whether the exceptions to the individual responsibility requirement to purchase health insurance satisfy First Amendment freedom of religion protections.
Date: May 7, 2010
Creator: Staman, Jennifer; Brougher, Cynthia; Liu, Edward C.; Lunder, Erika K. & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues

Description: This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit.
Date: February 6, 2014
Creator: Talaga, Scott R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eligibility and Determination of Health Insurance Premium Tax Credits and Cost-Sharing Subsidies: In Brief

Description: Certain individuals without access to subsidized health insurance coverage may be eligible for premium tax credits, as established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as amended). This report examines these tax credits and their eligibility requirements, as well as cost-sharing subsidies.
Date: March 23, 2016
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program: Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report addresses frequently asked questions regarding the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which was established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and aims to foster the creation of CO-OPs--nonprofit, member-run health insurance issuers that sell health plans in states in which they are licensed.
Date: March 11, 2016
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Employer Shared Responsibility Determination and the Potential Employer Penalty

Description: This report describes potential employer penalties as well as regulations to implement the ACA employer provisions. The regulations address insurance coverage requirements, methodologies for determining whether a worker is considered full time, provisions relating to seasonal workers and corporate franchises, and other reporting requirements.
Date: April 19, 2016
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excise Tax on High-Cost Employer-Sponsored Health Coverage: In Brief

Description: This report provides an overview of the excise tax. The report includes cost estimates for the excise tax and explores the excise tax's relationship with the tax advantages for employer-sponsored health coverage. The information in this report is based on statute and two notices issued by the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
Date: March 24, 2016
Creator: Mach, Annie L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Private Health Insurance Market Reforms in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Description: This report provides background information about the private health insurance market, including market segments and regulation. It then describes each ACA market reform, grouped under the following categories: obtaining coverage, keeping coverage, cost of purchasing coverage, covered services, cost-sharing limits, consumer assistance and other health care protections, and plan requirements related to health care providers.
Date: February 10, 2016
Creator: Mach, Annie L. & Fernandez, Bernadette
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicaid Coverage of Long-Term Services and Supports

Description: This report provides a description of the various statutory authorities that either require or otherwise allow states to cover LTSS under Medicaid. The Appendix provides a brief legislative history of Medicaid LTSS from Medicaid’s enactment and initial coverage requirements for institutional care through the evolution of HCBS options available to states.
Date: December 5, 2013
Creator: Colello, Kirsten J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contractors and HealthCare.gov: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Description: This report provides answers to 20 frequently asked questions regarding contractors and HealthCare.gov, the federal online health insurance portal called for by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) (P.L. 111-148, as amended). Over 50 contractors, including CGI Federal and Quality Software Services, Inc. (QSSI), helped in building the site, which was reportedly largely unusable when it first became available to the public on October 1, 2013.
Date: January 24, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.; Murrill, Brandon J. & Perry, Rodney M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare: Part B Premiums

Description: This report provides an overview of Medicare Part B premiums, including information on Part B eligibility and enrollment, late-enrollment penalties, collection of premiums, determination of annual premium amounts, premiums for high-income enrollees, premium assistance for low-income enrollees, protections for Social Security recipients from rising Part B premiums, and historical Medicare Part B premium trends. This report also provides a summary of various premium-related issues that may be of interest to Congress.
Date: August 4, 2016
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC): In Brief

Description: This report describes the eligibility criteria for the Health Coverage Tax Credit (HCTC) and the types of health insurance to which the tax credit may be applied. The tax credit's purpose is to make the purchase of health insurance more affordable for eligible individuals. The report also briefly describes the administration of the HCTC program and receipt of the credit by eligible taxpayers; it concludes with a summary of the HCTC's statutory history.
Date: December 6, 2016
Creator: Fernandez, Bernadette
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department