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U.S.-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy

Description: After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States faced a challenge in enlisting the full support of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in counterterrorism. This effort raised short-term policy issues about how to elicit cooperation and how to address China's concerns about military action (Operation Enduring Freedom). Longer-term questions have concerned whether counterterrorism has strategically transformed bilateral relations and whether China's support has been valuable and not obtained at the expense of other U.S. interests.
Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress

Description: On July 18, 2005, President Bush announced he would "work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India" and would "also seek agreement from Congress to adjust U.S. laws and policies," in the context of a broader, global partnership with India to promote stability, democracy, prosperity and peace. Administration officials have promoted nuclear cooperation with India as a way to reduce India's carbon dioxide emissions and its dependence on oil, bring India into the "nonproliferation mainstream" and create jobs for U.S. industry. Nonproliferation experts have suggested that potential costs to U.S. and global nonproliferation policy of nuclear cooperation with India may far exceed the benefits.
Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $28 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: June 26, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report discusses U.S.-Cuba relations since the early 1960s. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pakistan-U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses U.S.-Pakistan relationship marked by periods of both cooperation and discord, which was transformed by the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States into the enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S.-led counterterrorism efforts. This report outlines key aspects of the U.S.-Pakistan relationship, as well as of Pakistan's economic conditions, political environment, handling of ongoing separatist violence, and nuclear nonproliferation.
Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serbia and Montenegro: Current Situation and U.S. Policy

Description: Report discussing the state of politics in Serbia and Montenegro following the downfall of Serbian leader, Slobodan Milosevec in October 2000. In particular, the report focuses on aid from the United States to support political reforms and the various conditions set regarding the war crimes tribunal.
Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serbia and Montenegro: Current Situation and U.S. Policy

Description: Serbian strongman Slobodan Milosevic's long reign came to an end in October 2000, when he was deposed from power by a popular revolt after he refused to concede defeat in an election for the post of President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) won by his opponent, Vojislav Kostunica. Organized crime, extremists within the Serbian military and security apparatus, and the links between them continue to pose a threat to Serbia's democratic development. The United States and other Western countries have sought to encourage Serbia and Montenegro's integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions. However, these efforts have been hampered by controversy over the future status of Serbia's Kosovo province, Serbia's failure to fully cooperate with the Yugoslavia war crimes tribunal, and Serbia's fitful progress in such areas as rule of law and military and security sector reform.
Date: June 21, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Policy Budget Trends: A Thirty-Year Review

Description: This report serves as a resource for the annual congressional debate on foreign policy spending, providing context and a trend analysis of the past 30 years. It considers the full scope of the International Affairs Budget, or Budget Function 150, as foreign policy spending is designated within the context of the Congressional Budget Resolution. It also illustrates spending trends of the major components that make up Budget Function 150. Other relevant “snapshots” of international spending are also examined, including how foreign aid resources have been allocated across several sub-categories and trends that are especially applicable to current funding priorities such as confronting global health problems and increasing aid to Africa.
Date: June 20, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues

Description: In early May 2006, assessments of insufficient Serbian cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) led the European Union (EU) to suspend association talks with Serbia. Later that month, the U.S. Secretary of State withheld certification of full Serbian cooperation with ICTY, leading to a partial suspension of U.S. bilateral assistance to Serbia. From late 2004 through early 2005, a combination of intensified international pressure and deadlines associated with Euro-Atlantic integration processes prompted a spate of transfers of indicted persons to the tribunal. Full cooperation with ICTY is a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union and NATO.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Kim, Julie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pakistan: Chronology of Recent Events

Description: This report provides a chronology of recent events involving Pakistan and Pakistan-U.S. relations. Sources include, but are not limited to, major newswires, the U.S. Department of State, and Pakistani news outlets. For a substantive review, see CRS Issue Brief IB94041, Pakistan-U.S. Relations.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt. U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation. For more information on Egypt, see CRS Report RS22274, Egypt: 2005 Presidential and Parliamentary Elections.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report provides an overview of Egyptian politics and current issues in U.S.-Egyptian relations. It briefly provides a political history of modern Egypt, an overview of its political institutions, and a discussion of the prospects for democratization in Egypt, U.S.-Egyptian relations are complex and multi-faceted, and this report addresses the following current topics: the Arab-Israeli peace process, Iraq, terrorism, democratization and reform, human rights, trade, and military cooperation.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. According to its November 30, 2005, “Strategy for Victory,” the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, compounded by burgeoning sectarian violence. Mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs -- without clear signs of security progress -- have intensified a debate within the United States over the wisdom of the invasion and whether to wind down U.S. involvement without completely accomplishing U.S. goals. Administration critics, including some in Congress, believe the U.S. mission in Iraq is failing and that major new policy initiatives are required. Some believe that U.S. counter-insurgent operations are hampered by an insufficient U.S. troop levels and that sectarian violence threatens to place U.S. forces in the middle of an all out civil war in Iraq. Others believe that a U.S. move to withdraw might undercut popular support for the insurgency and force compromise among Iraq's factions.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

Description: Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments. Israel has an advanced industrial, market economy in which the government plays a substantial role. The economy is now doing very well, and increased social spending is expected. Israel's foreign policy is focused largely on its region, Europe, and the United States. European countries collectively are Israel's second largest trading partner, and the EU participates in the peace process. Since 1948, the United States and Israel have developed a close friendship based on common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests. Current issues in U.S.-Israeli relations include Israel's military sales to China, inadequate Israeli protection of U.S. intellectual property, and espionage-related cases.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran's influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran's sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran's influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. U.S. officials say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. presence in Iraq.
Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department