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Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Options

Description: This report discusses the political environment in Iraq and its implications on U.S. policy. Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime. Some experts believe that Iran, a country of almost 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran’s regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an “axis of evil” along with Iraq and North Korea.
Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Description: According to the Administration's "National Security Strategy" document released on March 16, 2006, the United States "may face no greater challenge from a single country than Iran." To date, the Bush Administration has pursued several avenues to attempt to contain the potential threat posed by Iran, including supporting a long-term policy of changing Iran's regime. Iran's nuclear program is not the only major U.S. concern on Iran. Successive administrations have pointed to the threat posed by Iran's policy in the Near East region, particularly material support to groups that use violence to prevent or complicate Israeli-Arab peace. Iran's human rights practices and strict limits on free expression have been consistently criticized by official U.S. and U.N. reports.
Date: September 11, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie & Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bangladesh: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report discusses the key issues regarding U.S.-Bangladesh Relations. U.S. policy toward Bangladesh emphasizes support for political stability and democracy; social and economic development; and improvement of human rights. The United States has long-standing supportive relations with Bangladesh and has viewed Bangladesh as a moderate voice in the Islamic world.
Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China/Taiwan: Evolution of the "One China" Policy - Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei

Description: In Part I, this CRS report discusses the policy on “one China” since the United States began in 1971 to reach understandings with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government in Beijing. Part II documents the evolution of the “one China” principle as articulated in key statements by Washington, Beijing, and Taipei. The U.S. policy on “one China” has evolved to cover three issues: sovereignty, peaceful resolution, and cross-strait dialogue.
Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China/Taiwan: Evolution of the "One China" Policy -- Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei

Description: Despite apparently consistent statements in over three decades, the "one China" policy concerning Taiwan remains somewhat ambiguous and subject to different interpretations. Questions have arisen about the policy itself and about the policy in relation to U.S. interests regarding peace and stability. This report discusses U.S. policy on the "one China" policy in regards to three major issues: sovereignty, use of force, and cross-strait dialogue. Since the mid-1990s, U.S. interests in preventing conflict across the Taiwan Strait have been challenged by China's military modernization and Taiwanese moves toward independence that have been perceived in Beijing as provocative. This report describes these issues in detail, including relevant legislation.
Date: September 6, 2006
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba After Fidel Castro: U.S. Policy Implications and Approaches

Description: In the new context of Fidel’s transfer of power, there are two broad policy approaches to contend with political change in Cuba: a stay-the-course or status-quo approach that would maintain the U.S. dual-track policy of isolating the Cuban government while providing support to the Cuban people; and an approach aimed at influencing the Cuban government and Cuban society through increased contact and engagement.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: The United States recognized the independence of all the former Soviet republics by the end of 1991, including the South Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The United States has fostered these states' ties with the West in part to end the dependence of these states on Russia for trade, security, and other relations. The FREEDOM Support Act of 1992 provides authorization for assistance to the Eurasian states for humanitarian needs, democratization, and other purposes. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, the Administration appealed for a national security waiver of the prohibition on aid to Azerbaijan, in consideration of Azerbaijan's assistance to the international coalition to combat terrorism. Azerbaijani and Georgian troops participate in stabilization efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and Armenian personnel serve in Iraq.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration. Another component of U.S. policy consists of support measures for the Cuban people, including private humanitarian donations and U.S.-sponsored radio and television broadcasting to Cuba. There are several schools of thought on how to achieve the objective of bringing democracy and respect for human rights to Cuba: some advocate maximum pressure on Cuba until reforms are enacted; others argue for lifting some U.S. sanctions judged to be hurting the Cuban people; and still others call for a swift normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report, which will be updated regularly, examines issues in U.S.-Cuban relations and tracks legislative initiatives on Cuba in the 109th Congress. The 109th Congress will likely continue an active interest in Cuba concerning human rights, debate over economic sanctions (especially on travel), food and agricultural exports to Cuba, terrorism issues, Radio and TV Marti, bilateral anti-drug cooperation, and migration issues.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

Description: This report, which will be updated regularly, examines issues in U.S.-Cuban relations and tracks legislative initiatives on Cuba in the 109th Congress. The 109th Congress will likely continue an active interest in Cuba concerning human rights, debate over economic sanctions (especially on travel), food and agricultural exports to Cuba, terrorism issues, Radio and TV Marti, bilateral anti-drug cooperation, and migration issues.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

Description: On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel declared its independence and was immediately engaged in a war with all of its neighbors. Despite the fact that armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy and an advanced industrial, market economy. Since 1948, the United States and Israel have developed a close friendship based on common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests. This report outlines the current state of Israeli government and economy, as well as general relations between the U.S. and Israel.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate the communist government of Fidel Castro for much of the past 40 years. Under the Bush Administration, enforcement of U.S. restrictions on Cuba travel has increased, and restrictions on travel and on private remittances to Cuba have been tightened. Several legislative initiatives have been introduced in the 109th Congress that would ease restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba. These bills would, among other things, lift overall restrictions on travel to Cuba, lift the overall embargo, and ease restrictions on exporting agricultural commodities to Cuba.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. According to its November 30, 2005, "Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security. Mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs -- without clear signs of security progress -- have intensified a debate within the United States over the wisdom of the invasion and whether to wind down U.S. involvement without completely accomplishing U.S. goals.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

Description: Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, now compounded by Sunni-Shiite violence that some believe is a civil war. This report discusses the background of the issue and examines several security challenges, response, and other policy options for the U.S.
Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department