Congressional Research Service Reports - 4,265 Matching Results

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Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé , Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report serves as a primer on the EU and provides a brief description of U.S.-EU relations that may be of interest in the 113th Congress.
Terrorist Attacks in Mumbai, India, and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report examines the November 26, 2008 terrorist attack on Mumbai, India that left 174 people dead and hundreds more injured. The report assesses the resulting tension between India and Pakistan, due to possible links between the attackers and the Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorist group, who are believed to have past ties with Pakistan's military and intelligence services. The report also examines the implications of the attack on U.S. foreign policy.
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance in 1992: The Role of Congress
This report discusses the key role Congress played in formulating an aid program for the former Soviet Union in 1992.
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report discusses Iraq's political system. The result of a U.S.-supported election process, it continues to be driven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting.
Iraq: Politics and Governance
This report provides background and analysis on the politics of Iraq, including its communities, governing personalities and factions, security forces and militias, and the government's human rights record.
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues regarding U.S.-Japan economic relations. Japan is a significant partner of the United States in a number of foreign policy areas, particularly in U.S. security priorities, which range from hedging against Chinese military modernization to countering threats from North Korea.
U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam
This report discusses U.S. assistance to Vietnam for the environmental and health damage attributed to a dioxin contained in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed over much of the southern portion of the country during the Vietnam War, which remains a major issue in bilateral relations.
U.S.-South Korea Relations
South Korea (known officially as the Republic of Korea, or ROK) is one of the United States' most important strategic and economic partners in Asia, and since 2009 relations between the two countries arguably have been at their most robust state in decades. This report discusses the development of this relationship and examines current issues.
Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides background information regarding Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia and discusses most recent developments.
The Department of Defense Role in Foreign Assistance: Background, Major Issues, and Options for Congress
This report begins with a brief introduction to the three areas in which DOD plays a role in foreign assistance and to Congress's part in authorizing that role and briefly discusses the general evolution of DOD's role and the Department of State's current perception of that role based on current national security needs. The report then provides an overview of the evolution of the DOD role and current activities in the three areas cited above, with a snapshot of the varying perspectives on the DOD roles in these areas.
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications
This report focuses on current developments in Taiwan, analyzing how those developments are affecting choices the United States makes about its policy toward Taiwan specifically and toward the People's Republic of China (PRC) more broadly.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process, as well as issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections.
The "Islamic State" and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the The Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIL/ISIS, or the Arabic acronym Daesh), which is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrorist group that controls large areas of Iraq and Syria, has adherents in several other countries, and disrupts regional and international security with violence and terrorism.
China-U.S. Trade Issues
This report provides an overview of U.S.-China commercial relations, including major trade disputes.
Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report looks at Kuwait's relationships with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf, and its own political system which has been in turmoil since 2006. Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region and its proximity to both Iran and Iraq.
Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response
This report discusses the ongoing conflict in Syria and provides an overview of U.S. Policy responses. The rise of the insurgent terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or ISIL/ISIS) and Russia's military intervention on behalf of the Syrian government have reshaped debates over U.S. policy toward the ongoing civil conflict in Syria, now in its fifth year.
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement
This report discusses the history of Sudan's civil unrest and the subsequent crisis in Darfur, as well as United Nations and United States aid and peacekeeping efforts, and current related policy under the Obama Administration.
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement
This report discusses the history of Sudan's civil unrest and the subsequent crisis in Darfur, as well as United Nations and United States aid and peacekeeping efforts, and current related policy under the Obama Administration.
The Islamic State--Frequently Asked Questions: Threats, Global Implications, and U.S. Policy Responses
With the attacks in Beirut, over Egypt, and in Paris, the Islamic State has demonstrated a transnational capability that suggests its strategic objectives and tactics have evolved. The response to these attacks by the United States and other nations continues to evolve as the threat posed by IS changes. This report poses frequently asked questions with answers excerpted from other CRS products.
Syria: Political Conditions and Relations with the United States After the Iraq War
This report focuses on Syria's internal politics and the impact of hostilities in Iraq on Syria's stability and U.S.-Syrian relations. It outlines the development of the regime currently headed by President Bashar al-Asad and its support base; describes potential challenges to the regime; examines the effect of the Iraq war on Syrian domestic politics and U.S.-Syrian relations; and reviews U.S. policy options toward Syria.
Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks
This report discusses Iraq's political system, which has been restructured through a U.S.-supported election process, as well as issues relating to opponents of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki and the atmosphere of nationwide provincial elections.
The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation
This report outlines the history of various efforts relating to benefits for victims of the 1979-1981 Iran Hostage Crisis, and describes several bills currently before Congress: the Justice for Former American Hostages in Iran Act of 2015, S. 868, a companion bill, H.R. 3338, and Section 122 of the Department of State Operations Authorization and Embassy Security Act, Fiscal Year 2016, S. 1635.
The Republic of the Philippines: Background and U.S. Relations
This report discusses the history and current status of relations between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines (RP), including policy issues and recent political events.
Russia-Georgia Conflict in South Ossetia: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report discusses Russia-Georgia conflict in South Ossetia region, the implications for Georgia and Russia, international response, U.S. Response.
Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments
This report covers recent political events in Liberia, a small, poor West African country.
Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Recent Developments and Their Policy Implications
This report focuses on current developments in Taiwan, analyzing how those developments are affecting choices the United States makes about its policy toward Taiwan specifically and toward the People's Republic of China (PRC) more broadly.
Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments
This report covers recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country which began a post-conflict transition process to achieve enduring peace, socio-economic reconstruction and democratic governance.
Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments
This report covers recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country which began a post-conflict transition process to achieve enduring peace, socio-economic reconstruction and democratic governance.
Libya: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions
This report discusses U.S. laws and executive orders that impose economic sanctions currently in place against Libya, including whether they can be changed by executive action, and exemptions to the sanctions that could make foreign assistance available.
Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments
This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade.
Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments
This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade.
Liberia: 1989-1997 Civil War, Post-War Developments, and U.S. Relations
This report covers Liberia’s first civil conflict (1989-1997), post-war developments until roughly 2001, and the history of U.S.-Liberian relations and U.S. policy toward Liberia.
Unrest in Uzbekistan: Context and Implications
This report examines the large-scale domestic unrest that occurred in eastern Uzbekistan in May 2005 that resulted in hundreds of civilian casualties. The report discusses Implications for Uzbekistan and for its relations with the United States.
Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2005
This report focuses on the interactions between Mexico and the United States on migration and border issues during the administrations of President George W. Bush and President Vicente Fox of Mexico. The discussions and agreements fall into four areas: (1) the bilateral migration talks, (2) the Partnership for Prosperity, (3) the Border Partnership Agreement, and (4) the trilateral “Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North America
Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions
This report identifies the legislative bases for sanctions imposed on Iran, and the nature of the authority to waive or lift those restrictions. It comprises two tables that present legislation and executive orders that are specific to Iran and its objectionable activities in the areas of terrorism, human rights, and weapons proliferation.
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Iran Sanctions
This report analyzes U.S. and international sanctions against Iran and provides some examples, based on open sources, of companies and countries that conduct business with Iran.
Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of the key issues for Congress related to Egypt and U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. The United States has provided significant military and economic assistance to Egypt since the late 1970s. U.S. policymakers are now debating complex questions about the future of U.S.-Egypt relations, and these debates and events in Egypt are shaping consideration of appropriations and authorization legislation in the 114th Congress.
Iran, Gulf Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses issues regarding Iran's political history and structure. It also takes a look at economic and defense policy responses for Congress, specifically focusing on Iran's nuclear capabilities.
Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons
This report discusses Pakistan's nuclear arsenal, which probably consists of approximately 110-130 nuclear warheads, although it could have more. Pakistan's nuclear arsenal is widely regarded as designed to dissuade India from taking military action against Pakistan, but Islamabad's expansion of its nuclear arsenal, development of new types of nuclear weapons, and adoption of a doctrine called "full spectrum deterrence" have led to concern about an increased risk of nuclear conflict between Pakistan and India.
Kazakhstan: Current Developments and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the relationship between the U.S. and Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is becoming an important power in Central Asia by virtue of its large territory, ample natural resources, and strategic location. However, it faces political, ethnic, economic, and environmental challenges to its stability and integrity. After the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, Kazakhstan granted overflight rights for U.S.-led coalition actions in Afghanistan, and in 2003 provided some troops for post-conflict rebuilding in Iraq.
Balkan Cooperation on War Crimes Issues
This report provides background regarding the cooperation of Balkan countries regarding the arrest and transfer of indicted war criminals to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. Full cooperation with ICTY has been established as a key prerequisite to further progress toward a shared long-term goal for the western Balkan countries: closer association with and eventual membership in the European Union (EU) and NATO.
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
This report provides an overview of the New Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). The Obama Administration and outside analysts argue that New START strengthens strategic stability and enhances U.S. national security. Critics, however, question whether the treaty serves U.S. national security interests.
Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report looks at Kuwait's relationships with its neighbors in the Persian Gulf, and its own political system which has been in turmoil since 2006. Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region because of its willingness to cooperate with U.S. strategy and military operations in the region and its proximity to both Iran and Iraq.