Congressional Research Service Reports - 4,265 Matching Results

Search Results

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget
The 112th Congress faces several budget and appropriations decisions that may affect implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget
This report discusses the 112th Congress' possible changes to the implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables
This report tracks historical federal funding associated with the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMEPETES) Reauthorization Act of 2010, which are set to expire in 2013.
Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress
This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms.
In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security
Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress.
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
Report containing information regarding foreign direct investments, including the foreign acquisition of American firms.
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy
This report provides an overview of the U.S. foreign assistance program by answering frequently asked questions on the subject. It is intended to provide a broad view of foreign assistance over time.
AIDS in Africa
This report discusses the AIDS issues in Africa and the Bush administration call to double U.S. international funding for AIDS.
Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa
This report provides a broad overview of U.S. strategic interests in Africa and the role of U.S. military efforts on the continent as they pertain to the creation of AFRICOM. Although the command is still in the early stages of its development, a discussion of AFRICOM’s mission, its coordination with other government agencies, and its basing and manpower requirements is included.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides a brief overview of the FY2014 State Department, Foreign Operations and Related Programs funding request, as well as top-line analysis of pending House and Senate State-Foreign Operations appropriations proposals.
America Competes 2010: FY2012 Funding and FY2008-FY2011 Funding Summary
This report discusses how funding affects the America COMPETES program, and subsequently U.S. interests in R&D in STEM disciplines.
Foreign Aid Reform: Agency Coordination
This report discusses the many agencies involved with U.S. foreign assistance, the mechanisms currently in place to coordinate foreign aid programs, particularly those related to development assistance, and agency coordination issues that Congress may consider as part of foreign assistance reform.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress
Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations
This report focuses on the $59.65 billion requested for programs and activities funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, which excludes some portions of the International Affairs request such as certain commissions and foreign food aid requested as part of other budget functions.
Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement
This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy.
Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of current U.S. international science and technology (S&T) policy; describes the role of the Department of State (DOS), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other federal agencies; and discusses possible policy options for Congress. It focuses on international science and technology diplomacy, where American leadership in science and technology is used as a diplomatic tool to enhance other country's development and to improve understanding by other nations of U.S. values and ways of doing business.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and Eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of recent Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports.
Palestinian Initiatives for 2011 at the United Nations
This report provides information on the United Nations (U.N.) framework and process for options being discussed regarding possible Palestinian statehood, including overviews of the following topics: the U.N. and recognition of states, observer status in the United Nations, and the criteria and process for United Nations membership. The report also analyzes the prospects for avoiding U.N. action by reaching an Israel-PLO agreement to resume negotiations, as well as the possibility of a compromise U.N. resolution that could set forth parameters for future Israeli-Palestinian negotiations but stop short of addressing the question of Palestinian statehood beyond expressing aspirations.
Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries
This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of recent Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports.
Laos: Background and U.S. Relations
No Description Available.
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Afghanistan's historical governments and the activities of the U.S. and other countries during various phases of war against terrorist groups and current U.S. policies in regard to Afghanistan. Topics such as troop numbers, military and governmental strategies, Afghan Army training, developmental aid, the economy, and human rights issues are discussed.
Quatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report outlines Qatar's governmental structure and leaders, economy, human rights issues, their relations with other countries in the region, and U.S. defense partnerships with Qatar.
Honduras: Background and U.S. Relations
This report analyzes political, economic, and security conditions in Honduras. It also examines issues in U.S.-Honduran relations that have been of particular interest to Congress, including foreign assistance, migration, security cooperation, human rights, and trade and investment.
Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes some of the options the Administration might use to end or alter U.S. implementation of the JCPOA, if there is a decision to do so. These options, which might involve use of procedures in the JCPOA itself or the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act (P.L. 114-17), are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues
This report discusses the United States as the direct investor abroad and the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in the world.
Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 115th Congress
This report discusses U.S. policy toward China in regards to the many human rights abuses found there. A selection of the top areas human rights violations in China are discussed such as internet control. religious freedom, the criminal justice system, family planning policies, and the persecution of ethnic minorities. This is followed by a discussion of U.S. efforts and policies aimed at ending or decreasing human rights abuses in China.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy
This report outlines the United Arab Emirates (UAE) governmental structure, economy, military, foreign policy, human rights issues and U.S. policies and relations with the UAE. Major areas of U.S. policy concerns discussed are the UAE's participation in the war in Yemen supporting Saudia Arabia and the current standoff with Quatar over alleged sponsorship of terrorism by Quatar in relation to the significant amount of U.S. military personnel based in the UAE.
Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2017
This report provides data regarding the direct overt U.S. aid appropriations and military reimbursements to Pakistan.
Presidential References to the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force in Publicly Available Executive Actions and Reports to Congress
This memorandum sets out information and analysis concerning presidential references in official notifications and records to the Authorization for Use of Military Force (2001 AUMF; Public Law 107-40; 50 U.S.C. § 1541 note), enacted in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States. It contains very brief discussions of the relevant provisions of the 2001 AUMF, and the uses of U.S. armed forces connected with 2001 AUMF authority, as well as excerpted language and other information from the notifications.
Yemen: Cholera Outbreak
This report discusses the cholera outbreak in Yemen that began in October 2016 due to the breakdown of sanitation systems caused by the ongoing civil war. A brief description of cholera is given along with current conditions in Yemen for healthcare, and past humanitarian aid efforts by the U.S. and the U.N.
Syria's Chemical Weapons: Continuing Challenges
This report discusses Syria's chemical weapon supplies, efforts to have them destroyed, recent uses of chemical weapons there, and issues related to undeclared chemical weapon stocks.
China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on China's naval modernization effort and its implications for U.S. Navy capabilities. The question of how the United States should respond to China's military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, is a key issue in U.S. defense planning and budgeting. Many U.S. military programs for countering improving Chinese military forces (particularly its naval forces) fall within the U.S. Navy's budget.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Bahrain's political structure and economy, the 2011 uprising and its aftereffects, human rights issues, security cooperation with the U.S., and foreign policy towards other countries in the region.
State Department Special Envoy, Representative, and Coordinator Positions: Background and Congressional Actions
This report provides background on the use of special envoys, representatives, and coordinators (primarily within the foreign affairs arena; for the most part, interagency positions are not included). It identifies various temporary positions, their purpose, and existing authorities. The report presents commonly articulated arguments for and against the use of these positions and issues for Congress going forward. The scope of this report is limited to the special envoy and related positions identified by the Department of State in a 2017 report to Congress and additional selected positions identified by CRS. This report may be updated to reflect congressional action.
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Afghanistan's government and political structure, ongoing security and defense issues, U.S. assistance to the Afghan military, U.S. humanitarian and economic aid, human rights issues, regional relations, and economic development.
The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) which is a presidential advisory body consisting of nine cabinet members, two ex officio members, and other members appointed by the President to oversee direct investments by foreign countries in the United States. The President has the power to block a direct investment by another country if such an acquisition would pose a threat to U.S. national security. The basics of the committee's operations and laws governing their conduct and power, presidential blocks of investment, previous reforms to the original law governing the committee and its actions and current propositions in Congress to further amend the laws regarding the committee are discussed.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It provides background information, analyzes recent developments and key policy debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action. Topics discussed include politics, security challenges, Hezbollah and its wars and power, economic issues, and refugees in Lebanon from Syria.
Turkey: Erdogan's Referendum Victory Delivers "Presidential System"
This report discuses the Turkish referendum results regarding creating a presidential system through the abolishment of the position of prime minister and a strengthening of the power of the presidency. Possible irregularities, reactions of other countries to the results, and possible effects of the changes on Turkish government and President Erdogan's power are also discussed.
Serbia: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides a brief overview of Serbia's political and economic systems and conditions, their relations with Kosovo, the EU, Russia, and the U.S. and efforts to increase border security in response to the refugee and migrant crisis of 2015 and to combat terrorism.
Redeploying U.S. Nuclear Weapons to South Korea: Background and Implications in Brief
This report provides background information on the deployment of nuclear weapon systems in South Korea in the past, explores the options that might be available for the redeployment of nuclear weapons to South Korea now to deter the North Korean threat, and discusses the potential implications of doing so for South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the U.S.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be.
Election in Germany
This report gives a brief overview of the 2017 chancellorship election campaign in Germany where Chancellor Angela Merkel is running for her 4th term in office. The major political parties and issues in the campaign are discussed as well as possible effects on U.S. relations with Germany.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report gives a overview of Iran's defense policies and programs and foreign policy. Regions covered are the Near East, South and Central Asia,Russia, Europe, East Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the United States. Iran's nuclear programs and security issues are also discussed.
Attack on U.S. Soldiers in Niger: Context and Issues for Congress
This report discusses an attack on U.S. Special Operation Forces assisting local military forces in Niger in counterterrorism efforts which killed four U.S. military personnel and wounded two as well as killing several Niger military personnel. The U.S. response to the attack, the growing threat of Islamic extremism and terrorism in the Sahel of Africa, and terrorism and political and social instability in Niger are also discussed.
Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies
This report gives a overview of Iran's defense policies and programs and foreign policy. Regions covered are the Near East, South and Central Asia,Russia, Europe, East Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the United States. Iran's nuclear programs and security issues are also discussed.