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Japan's Political Turmoil in 2008: Background and Implications for the United States

Description: This report addresses the September 1, 2008, resignation of Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda and the resulting aftermath. It also addresses the September 22 Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) election of Fukuda's successor and the widely expected winner of said election, ex-Foreign Minister Taro Aso. Japanese policymaking is likely to enter a period of disarray, which could negatively affect several items of interest to the United States. This report analyzes the factors behind and implications of Japan's current political turmoil.
Date: September 16, 2008
Creator: Manyin, Mark E. & Chanlett-Avery, Emma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran. This report will be updated.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The NATO Summit at Bucharest, 2008

Description: NATO held a summit in Bucharest, Romania, April 2-4, 2008. The summit did not become the occasion to adopt major new ideas or initiatives. A "Strategic Vision" paper on Afghanistan clarified several issues but did not lead to a greater sharing of the combat burden among NATO governments. Croatia and Albania, but not Macedonia, were invited to begin accession negotiations for membership. In a contentious debate, neither Georgia nor Ukraine were admitted to the MAP process. The debate over missile defense led to the consolidation of an evolving allied position. See also CRS Report RL34415, Enlargement Issues at NATO's Bucharest Summit, coordinated by Paul Gallis.
Date: May 5, 2008
Creator: Gallis, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

Description: This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. The report also includes discussion of China's controversial January 2007 testing of antisatellite weapons.
Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Logan, Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation

Description: China has a determined, yet still modest, program of civilian space activities planned for the next decade. The potential for U.S.-China cooperation in space -- an issue of interest to Congress -- has become more controversial since the January 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test. Some argue that Chinese capabilities now threaten U.S. space assets in low earth orbit. Others stress the need to expand dialogue with China. This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities.
Date: May 21, 2008
Creator: Logan, Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: September 22, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: July 29, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: May 8, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

Description: China is a major source of U.S. imports of consumer products (such as toys) and an increasingly important supplier of various food products. Reports of unsafe seafood, pet food, toys, tires, and other products imported from China over the past year or so have raised concern in the United States over the health, safety, and quality of imported Chinese products. This report provides an overview of this issue and implications for U.S.-China trade relations.
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serbia: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Description: Serbia faces an important crossroads in its development. It is seeking to integrate into the European Union (EU), but its progress has been hindered by a failure to arrest four remaining indicted war criminals and by tensions with the United States and the EU over the independence of Serbia's Kosovo province. The United States, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other EU countries have recognized Kosovo's independence. Serbian leaders condemned said recognition and have withdrawn Serbia's ambassadors from the United States and other countries recognizing Kosovo's independence. The second session of the 110th Congress may consider legislation on Serbia, including conditions on aid to Serbia.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serbia: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

Description: Serbia is currently seeking to integrate into the European Union (EU), but its progress has been hindered by a failure to arrest remaining indicted war criminals and by tensions with the United States and most EU countries over the independence of Serbia's Kosovo province. This report describes the current unstable political conditions in Serbia and Serbia's relations with the U.S. and EU nations.
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues

Description: The Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA) extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru that meet domestic content and other requirements. The purpose of ATPA is to promote economic growth in the Andean region and to encourage a shift away from dependence on illegal drugs by supporting legitimate economic activities. This report outlines the various aspects of the ATPA, including significant dates and modifications.
Date: October 27, 2008
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: The U.S. military is building up forces on the U.S. territory of Guam to increase deterrence and power projection for possible responses to crises and disasters, counterterrorism, and contingencies in support of South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, or elsewhere in Asia. But the defense buildup on Guam is moderate. Guam's role has increased with plans to withdraw some U.S. forces from Japan and South Korea. The buildup will cost $10.3 billion, with Japan contributing about 60% ($6.1 billion).
Date: October 29, 2008
Creator: Kan, Shirley A. & Niksch, Larry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent.
Date: September 17, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq.
Date: June 16, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

Description: Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United States and Europe: Current Issues

Description: The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship. Despite much improvement in overall relations since the divisive debate over Iraq policy, several foreign policy and trade disputes remain. This report examines the current state of the transatlantic relationship and key issues that may have implications for U.S. interests in the second session of the 110th Congress.
Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Archick, Kristin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Brazil's WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview

Description: On June 2, 2008, a World Trade Organization (WTO) Appellate Body (AB) publicly released its final report upholding a December 2007 compliance panel ruling that the United States has not fully complied with a March 2005 WTO ruling against certain U.S. cotton support programs. This AB ruling was part of a prolonged dispute settlement case (DS267) originated by Brazil against certain aspects of the U.S. cotton program in September 2002. This report provides a brief overview of Brazil's case against the U.S. cotton program, the evolution and current status of the case, and the potential role for Congress.
Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department