Congressional Research Service Reports - 242 Matching Results

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Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration's "Rebalancing" Toward Asia

Description: In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia-Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. Given that one purpose of the "pivot" or "rebalancing" toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress's oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration's plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed.
Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Manyin, Mark E.; Daggett, Stephen; Dolven, Ben; Lawrence, Susan V.; Martin, Michael F.; O'Rourke, Ronald et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the U.S. policy toward the Central Asia. It provides background information and most recent developments in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. U.S. objectives have included promoting free markets, democratization, human rights, energy development, and the forging of East-West and Central Asia-South Asia trade links.
Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Description: Within the past two decades, prominent foreign policy organizations and foreign policy experts have perceived serious deficiencies in the authorities, organizations, and personnel used to conduct interagency missions that prevent the United States from exercising its power to full advantage. For the 112th Congress, proposals to address these problems may be of interest for their perceived potential not only to enhance performance, but also to save money by streamlining processes, encouraging interagency cooperation, and reducing duplication. These proposals also provide context for current and recent legislation, including the Interagency Personnel Rotation Act of 2011 (S. 1268 and H.R. 2314) and the Contingency Operations Oversight and Interagency Enhancement Act of 2011 (H.R. 3660), as well as the new Global Security Contingency Fund contained in the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA, Section 1207, H.R. 1540, P.L. 112-81, signed into law December 31, 2011). The FY2012 NDAA requires the President to submit to Congress a “whole-of-government” implementation plan.
Date: February 2, 2012
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.; Dale, Catherine & Towell, Pat
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Description: This report discusses the 112th Congress' measures to reduce the federal budget deficit and how this may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility.
Date: October 4, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pakistan: U.S. Foreign Assistance

Description: The 112th Congress has been focused measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may influence congressional debate over the third-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan-a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility.
Date: April 10, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Kronstadt, K. Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

Description: The 112th Congress faces several budget and appropriations decisions that may affect implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget

Description: This report discusses the 112th Congress' possible changes to the implementation of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. Signed on January 4, 2011, this law seeks to improve U.S. competitiveness and innovation by authorizing, among other things, increased federal support for research in the physical sciences and engineering; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The specific debate about FY2013 funding for America COMPETES 2010 provisions will occur within the broader context of the national conversation about U.S. competitiveness.
Date: October 9, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables

Description: This report tracks historical federal funding associated with the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMEPETES) Reauthorization Act of 2010, which are set to expire in 2013.
Date: October 16, 2012
Creator: Gonzalez, Heather B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Civilian Interagency Capacity for Missions Abroad: Key Proposals and Issues for Congress

Description: This report draws on over three dozen studies with recommendations to improve the current national security system. The studies surveyed include three prepared by the Project on National Security Reform, with comprehensive recommendations, four prepared or co-sponsored by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), and two by RAND in conjunction with the American Academy of Diplomats, as well as reports by the Council on Foreign Relations, the Defense Science Board, the National Defense University, and others. This report draws from these studies, as well as a few articles, for recommendations to improve strategy-making, planning, and budgeting; to improve institutional authorities, structures and arrangements; and, to create interagency personnel policies and mechanisms.
Date: January 23, 2012
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.; Dale, Catherine & Towell, Pat
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In Brief: Clarifying the Concept of "Partnership" in National Security

Description: Over the last few years, the term "partnership" has spread like wildfire through official U.S. national security guidance documents and rhetoric. At the Department of Defense (DOD), which spearheaded the proliferation of the term, "partnership" has been used to refer to a broad array of civilian as well as military activities in support of national security.1 At other U.S. government agencies, and at the White House, the use of the term "partnership" has been echoed and applied even more broadly-not only in the national security arena, but also to all facets of U.S. relationships with foreign partners. "Partnership" is not new in either theory or practice. A lack of sufficient strategic direction regarding the use of the term could raise a series of potential concerns for Congress.
Date: May 4, 2012
Creator: Dale, Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Timor-Leste: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement

Description: This report covers the recent background of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, since its independence from Portugal in May 2002. It discusses the many serious challenges the country faces as it seeks to establish and deepen a stable democracy and develop its economy.
Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Dolven, Ben; Margesson, Rhoda & Vaughn, Bruce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nigeria: Elections and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the political climate, development challenges and reform in Nigeria. The report also considers the social issues and security concerns of Nigeria. In addition, other issues are mentioned, as Congress provides oversight for over $600 million in U.S. foreign assistance programs to Nigeria.
Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Ploch, Lauren
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

Description: Restrictions on travel to Cuba have been a key and often contentious component in U.S. efforts to isolate Cuba's communist government since the early 1960s. In January 2011, the Obama Administration announced policy changes further easing restrictions on travel and remittances. In the first session of the 112th Congress, there were several attempts aimed at rolling back the Obama Administration's actions easing restrictions on travel and remittances. Several initiatives were also introduced that would further ease or lift such restrictions altogether. This report discusses the details of these policy changes.
Date: January 10, 2012
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Venezuela: Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the current Congressional issues in relation to Venezuela, including background on the political situation and recent developments, the economic conditions, relevant U.S. policies, and the legislative initiatives in the 111th and 112th Congresses. The United States traditionally has had close relations with Venezuela, a major supplier of foreign oil, but there has been friction in relations under the government of populist President Hugo Chávez. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about human rights, Venezuela's military arms purchases, its relations with Cuba and Iran, and its efforts to export its brand of populism to other Latin American countries.
Date: August 30, 2012
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance Programs in China

Description: This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the People's Republic of China (PRC), including U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) programming, foreign operations appropriations, policy history, and legislative background. International programs supported by U.S. departments and agencies other than the Department of State and USAID are not covered in this report.
Date: May 11, 2012
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S.-South Korea Relations

Description: This report discusses relations between the United States and South Korea (known officially as the Republic of Korea, or ROK), which have been arguably at their best state in decades. In the Obama Administration, South Korea had emerged as the United States’ closest ally in East Asia.
Date: May 15, 2012
Creator: Manyin, Mark E.; Chanlett-Avery, Emma & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Sanctions on Burma

Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. policy towards Burma and the development of U.S. sanctions, a topical summary of those sanctions, and an examination of additional sanctions that have been considered, but not enacted, by Congress, or that could be imposed under existing law or executive orders. The report concludes with a discussion of options for Congress.
Date: October 19, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Description: This report discusses Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights. Relations among major political factions have worsened substantially since late 2011, threatening Iraq's stability and the perception of the achievements of the long U.S. intervention in Iraq. Sunni Arabs, always fearful that Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki would seek unchallenged power for Shiite factions allied with him, accuse him of an outright power grab as he seeks to purge the highest-ranking Sunni Arabs from government and to cripple attempts by Sunni-inhabited provinces to achieve greater autonomy.
Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State- Foreign Operations legislation. This report focuses on only the accounts funded through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill, but provides appropriations figures for the entire international affairs (Function 150) budget in Appendix E.
Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2013 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report analyzes the FY2013 request and congressional action related to FY2013 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The 112th Congress is considering FY2013 international affairs funding within the context of the Budget Control Act that established discretionary spending limits for FY2012-FY2021 and contains automatic budget reductions (sequestration) on discretionary spending to begin on January 2, 2013.
Date: July 23, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.; Lawson, Marian Leonardo & Tiersky, Alex L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department