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Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
This report discusses the political, social and economic situation of Turkmenistan in the years following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Georgia [Republic]: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests
Report that examines Georgia's efforts to democratize and bolster its free market economy, U.S. policy and assistance, basic facts, and biographical information.
Russia: Background and U.S. Policy
This report provides descriptions and background information on Russian government organization and power, the Russian military's role, and U.S. policy toward Russia. Specific topics covered include Russian governmental structures and background, Vladimir Putin's rise to power, human rights concerns, opposition groups, the economy of Russia and the impact of sanctions, the foreign relations of Russia with other countries in Europe, NATO, the EU, China, Syria, and the U.S., the Ukraine conflict and Russian military aggression. U.S. policies toward Russia, U.S. sanctions on Russia, and cyber warfare.
Lebanon
This report provides an overview of Lebanon and current issues of U.S. interest. It offers background information, analyzes recent developments and key legislative debates, and tracks legislation, U.S. assistance, and recent congressional action.
U.S. Role in the World: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress on the overarching U.S. foreign policy issue of the U.S. role in the world. Certain statements and actions from the Trump Administration have led to uncertainty about the Administration's intentions regarding the future U.S. role, and have intensified an ongoing debate among foreign policy specialists, strategists, policymakers, and the public about what that role should be. This report includes (particularly in its appendixes) references to other CRS products that provide more in-depth discussions of specific policy and program areas bearing on the U.S. role.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report provides a brief history of the state of Qatar, discussing its governance and human rights. The report also includes U.S.-Qatari defense and security cooperation and economic issues.
Democracy Promotion: An Objective of U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report aims to provide information on the history of democracy promotion as a foreign assistance objective, the role of the primary U.S. agencies administering such programs, and funding details and trends, as well as issues of potential relevance to Congress.
Arms Sales in the Middle East: Trends and Analytical Perspectives for U.S. Policy
This report analyzes state-to-state arms sales in the Middle East with a particular focus on U.S. transfers, as authorized and reviewed by Congress. The information in this report, including sales data, is drawn from a number of official and unofficial open sources. The report focuses on recent arms sales, primarily from the United States, to seven Middle Eastern states: Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Iraq, Turkey, and Qatar. It concludes by considering a number of arms sales-related issues of congressional interest and options available to Members of Congress to influence or control aspects of arms sales, including those related to oversight, reporting requirements, checks on executive action, and conditions on transfers or funding.
State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs: Fiscal Year 2017 Budget and Appropriations
This report provides an overview and highlights of the State Department Foreign Operations and Related Appropriations request with an account-by-account comparison of the FY2017 request to the House and Senate committee-passed bills and FY2016 estimates in Appendix A. Appendix B provides the International Affairs 150 function funding levels.
The State Department's "Trafficking in Persons" Report: Scope, Aid Restrictions, and Methodology
This report describes the legislative provisions that govern the U.S. Department of State's production of the annual TIP Report, reviews country ranking trends in the TIP Report, and identifies recent congressional oversight of and legislative activity to modify the TIP Report. Answers to selected frequently asked questions (FAQs) are included throughout the report.
China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States
This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ) disputes in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) involving China, with a focus on how these disputes may affect U.S. strategic and policy interests.
Options to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement
This report analyzes some of the options the Trump Administration might use to end or alter U.S. implementation of the Iran Nuclear Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), if there is a decision to do so. These options, which might involve use of procedures in the JCPOA itself or the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act (P.L. 114-17), are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Some potential implications of Administration decisions on the JCPOA are analyzed as well.
Cuba: U.S. Policy in the 115th Congress
This report discusses the recent developments in the Cuba's political and economic environment. It also discusses the U.S. - Cuba relations and U.S. policy toward Cuba.
Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy
This report outlines Iran's political structure and current leaders, human rights issues, and past and current U.S. relations with Iran.
Venezuela: Background and U.S. Policy
This report discusses the ongoing political, economic, and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela under President Nicolás Maduro and U.S. responses to it. It provides an overview of the political, economic, and social challenges Venezuela faces and analyzes U.S. policy concerns and actions regarding democracy and human rights, drug trafficking and money laundering, terrorism, and energy issues in Venezuela. The section on democracy and human rights includes U.S. support for OAS efforts regarding Venezuela. Proposals in the 115th Congress regarding Venezuela are also discussed.
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report discusses Bahrain's governmental structure and political climate, the 2011 uprising against the royal family and continued dissent, its alliance with Saudi Arabia, U.S. military forces in Bahrain, and human rights concerns.
Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief
This report provides information and analysis on Turkish interventions in Syria and relationship with Kurdish groups and how the United States's alliance with the Kurds in Iraq has strained relations between the two countries. Domestic issues in Turkey related to the recent constitutional referendum, President Erdogan's increasing authoritarianism, and their relations with Russia are also addressed.
Recent Developments in U.S. Aid to Egypt
This report discusses recent controversies over U.S. aid to Egypt and various announcements and threats to cut aid off due to Egypt's passage of a strict regulatory law for NGO's and possible ties with North Korea.
Qatar: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy
This report provides an overview of Qatar's governmental structure and leaders, economy, human rights concerns, relations with other Middle Eastern countries, defense cooperation with the U.S., and the recent severing of relations with Qatar by Saudi Arabia and several of its allies such as Bahrain, the UAE, and Egypt over its ties with the Muslim Brotherhood and alleged state sponsorship of terrorism. The crisis and attempt at mediation by the U.S. and Kuwait are discussed.
Developments in Cambodia Following the March 18 Coup
This report discusses the March 18, 1970 coup in Cambodia by General Lon Nol which overthrew the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk and subsequent fighting in Cambodia between Communist North Vietnamese troops and South Vietnamese troops which led to American intervention in the form of an attack on North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia in April and May of 1970.
The Latin American-United States Fishing Rights Controversy: Dilemma for United States Foreign Policy (1969-1971)
This report discusses the controversy over fishing rights between the United States and three South American nations (Chile, Peru, and Ecuador) which culminated in the seizure of U.S. tuna fishing vessels by Peru and Ecuador in waters the U.S. considered outside their territorial jurisdiction. The main events of the controversy, diplomatic actions taken by the nations involved, and policy options are discussed.
Zimbabwe: A Military-Compelled Transition?
This report discusses the military intervention in Zimbabwe which occurred on November 14 and 15th, 2017, and provides a discussion of the main events leading up to the action and possible outcomes.
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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Economic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy Goals: Discussion and Guide to Current Law
This report provides background on foreign policy sanctions. It addresses the following questions: Why do we apply sanctions? What objectives does the U.S. government seek to achieve when it imposes sanctions? Who imposes sanctions? What tools are available? How likely is it that sanctions will achieve the stated goal? What secondary consequences might sanctions have? What change is required for the sanctions to be lifted? Would multilateral sanctions be more desirable and achievable? The report also provides an uncomplicated map of where sanctions policies and options currently may be found in U.S. law.
Implications of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations upon the Regulation of Consular Identification Cards
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 109th Congress
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Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
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Iran's Influence in Iraq
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program
This report discusses the “oil-for-food” program which represents a longstanding U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining pressure on the Iraqi government to comply with all relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions.
Iran's Influence in Iraq
This report discusses Iran’s influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq, which is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran’s sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran’s influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. Some U.S. statements and press sources say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. and allied military presence in Iraq.
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
This report discusses issues with the “oil-for-food” program (OFFP), which was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. The program terminated following the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the assumption of sovereignty by an interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, and the lifting of Saddam-era U.N. sanctions. However, since the fall of the regime, there have been new allegations of mismanagement and abuse of the program, including allegations that Saddam Hussein’s regime manipulated the program to influence U.N. officials, contractors, and politicians and businessmen in numerous countries.
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
This report focuses on funding for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in the states of the former Soviet Union.
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues
This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations.
U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues
This report reviews the ongoing programs that will affect the expected size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force structure. It begins with an overview of this force structure during the Cold War, and summarizes the reductions and changes that have occurred since 1991. It then offers details about each category of delivery vehicle, focusing on their current deployments and ongoing and planned modernization programs. The report concludes with a discussion of issues related to decisions about the future size and shape of the U.S. strategic nuclear force.
Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon:
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Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response
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Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations
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The Persian Gulf States: Issues for U.S. Policy, 2006
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U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress
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Peacekeeping and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on Civilian Capabilities
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Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress
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The European Union: Questions and Answers
This report provides a brief overview of the European Union (EU), an economic and political partnership between 27 sovereign member states. The report describes the formation of the EU, the three main institutions of the EU, and the EU's relationship with the United States.