Congressional Research Service Reports - 669 Matching Results

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Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: Afghanistan's planned political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government persist and are even growing in some southern provinces. A new constitution was adopted in January 2004, and successful presidential elections were held on October 9, 2004, followed by parliamentary elections on September 18, 2005. Afghan citizens are enjoying new personal freedoms that were forbidden under the Taliban. Women are participating in economic and political life; however, the insurgency led by remnants of the former Taliban regime has conducted numerous lethal attacks since mid-2005, narcotics trafficking is rampant, and independent militias remain through the country. U.S. stabilization measures focus on strengthening the central government and its security forces while combating insurgents.
Date: May 4, 2006
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $26 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conditions on U.S. Aid to Serbia

Description: In each of the past five fiscal years (FY2001-FY2005), Congress has conditioned U.S. aid to Serbia on a presidential certification that Serbia has met certain conditions, including cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The 1 Ogth Congress is considering similar certification provisions in the FY2006 foreign aid bill. Supporters of aid conditionality say such provisions may have spurred Serbia's cooperation with the Tribunal. While the certification process continues to enjoy support in Congress, the Administration appears to favor ending it soon, as well as shifting responsibility for prosecuting war crimes from the ICTY to local courts.
Date: July 21, 2005
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Aid: Implementing the Assistance Program, 1992-1994

Description: In fiscal year 1994, the new states of the former Soviet Union became collectively the second largest recipient of U.S. foreign assistance made available from all sources. Whether and how the assistance program is helping to bring about democratic systems and free market economies is increasingly a question of interest to Congress and the public at large.
Date: January 18, 1995
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $26 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: July 14, 2005
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $28 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: June 26, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $26 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: July 14, 2005
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the former Soviet Union and then focuses on the foreign operations FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: April 14, 2005
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet Union

Description: Since 1992, the United States has provided more than $28 billion in assistance to the 12 states of the former Soviet Union (FSU). It continues to provide nearly $2 billion annually. This report describes the broad framework of U.S. assistance programs and policies in the region and then focuses on the FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) account under the foreign operations budget which, encompassing all U.S. objectives in the region, has often been the means by which Congress has expressed its views and sought to influence policy.
Date: March 16, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conditions on U.S. Aid to Serbia

Description: In each of the past five fiscal years (FY2001-FY2005), Congress has conditioned U.S. aid to Serbia on a presidential certification that Serbia has met certain conditions, including cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). The 1 Ogth Congress is considering similar certification provisions in the FY2006 foreign aid bill. Supporters of aid conditionality say such provisions may have spurred Serbia's cooperation with the Tribunal. While the certification process continues to enjoy support in Congress, the Administration appears to favor ending it soon, as well as shifting responsibility for prosecuting war crimes from the ICTY to local courts.
Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

Description: U.S. aid to the Palestinians has fluctuated considerably over the past three years, largely due to Hamas's changing role within the Palestinian Authority (PA). Since Hamas's forcible takeover of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the U.S. has dramatically boosted aid levels to bolster the PA and President Mahmoud Abbas vis-à-vis Hamas. Because of congressional concerns that, among other things, U.S. funds might be diverted to Palestinian terrorist groups, much of this assistance is subject to legislative restrictions. Experts advise that PA stability hinges on, now more than ever, improved security, economic development, Israeli cooperation, and the continuation of high levels of foreign assistance.
Date: October 8, 2008
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations

Description: This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains an overview of Palestinian society and politics and descriptions of key Palestinian individuals and groups--chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population.
Date: January 31, 2014
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

Description: This report provides an overview of current issues in U.S.-Palestinian relations. It also contains an overview of Palestinian society and politics and descriptions of key Palestinian individuals and groups -- chiefly the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Palestinian Authority (PA), Fatah, Hamas, and the Palestinian refugee population.
Date: July 3, 2014
Creator: Zanotti, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Egypt in Transition

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the transition underway and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. U.S. policy toward Egypt has long been framed as an investment in regional stability, built primarily on long-running military cooperation and sustaining the March 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. Successive U.S. Administrations have viewed Egypt's government as a moderating influence in the Middle East. U.S. policy makers are now grappling with complex questions about the future of U.S.-Egypt relations, and these debates are likely to influence consideration of appropriations and authorization legislation in the 112th Congress.
Date: February 8, 2012
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance to North Korea

Description: Should the United States resume food, energy, and/or denuclearization assistance to North Korea? This is the major issue facing Congress in considering the provision of aid to Pyongyang. The U.S. has provided food aid and energy assistance in the past. Currently plans for new aid is on hold due to the North Korean rocket launch on April 13, 2012.
Date: April 26, 2012
Creator: Manyin, Mark E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Assistance to North Korea

Description: Report discussing whether or not the United States should resume food, energy, and/or denuclearization assistance to North Korea. This is the major issue facing Congress in considering the provision of aid to Pyongyang. The U.S. has provided food aid and energy assistance in the past. Currently plans for new aid is on hold due to the North Korean rocket launch on April 13, 2012.
Date: March 20, 2012
Creator: Manyin, Mark E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Egypt in Transition

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the transition underway in Egypt and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. U.S. policy toward Egypt has long been framed as an investment in regional stability, built primarily on long-running military cooperation and sustaining the March 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. Successive U.S. Administrations have viewed Egypt's government as a moderating influence in the Middle East. U.S. policy makers are now grappling with complex questions about the future of U.S.-Egypt relations and these debates are likely to influence consideration of appropriations and authorization legislation in the 112th Congress.
Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Egypt in Transition

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the transition underway and information on U.S. foreign aid to Egypt. U.S. policy toward Egypt has long been framed as an investment in regional stability, built primarily on long-running military cooperation and sustaining the March 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. Successive U.S. Administrations have viewed Egypt's government as a moderating influence in the Middle East. U.S. policy makers are now grappling with complex questions about the future of U.S.-Egypt relations and these debates are likely to influence consideration of appropriations and authorization legislation in the 112th Congress.
Date: November 18, 2011
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department