Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives After 15 Years: Issues for Congress
This report discusses USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives' (OTI's) origin, its past and present activities, and issues about the program's impact, structure, and role within USAID that may be of interest to Congress. OTI's activities are overtly political, based on the idea that in the midst of political crisis and instability abroad there are local agents of change whose efforts, when supported by timely and creative U.S. assistance, can tip the balance toward peaceful and democratic outcomes that advance U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Foreign Aid Reform: Issues for Congress and Policy Options
This report discusses the role of foreign assistance as a tool of foreign policy and provides policy options for reform. Despite changing global conditions and challenges, U.S. foreign aid programs (including their organizational structure and their statutory underpinnings) still reflect the Cold War environment in which they originated.
Guatemala: U.S. Foreign Assistance Facts
In the past three years, the Administration has moved to substantially increase U.S. aid levels for Guatemala from $18.3 million in FY84 to a proposed $149.7 million in FY88. Budgetary limits on the overall size of the U.S. foreign aid program may cause reductions in the proposed 1988 levels, however, independent of any choices related to the Guatemalan, situation. This issue brief provides basic information on the U.S. aid program and on the general situation in Guatemala. It also outlines major issues that have arisen in the aid debate.
FY2017 State, Foreign Operations and Related Programs Budget Request: In Brief
This report provides an overview and highlights of budget requests for the State Department, Foreign Operations, and Related Appropriations (SFOPS). It includes information from the previous fiscal years with an account-by-account comparison of the FY2017 request to the FY2016 estimates and FY2015 actuals in Appendix A.
Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation
This report provides an overview and policy analysis of the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group in the Philippines and the Philippine-U.S. program of military cooperation against it. It examines the origins and operations of Abu Sayyaf, the efforts of the Philippine government and military to eliminate it, and the implications of a greater U.S. military role in attempts to suppress it.
Does Foreign Aid Work? Efforts to Evaluate U.S. Foreign Assistance
This report discusses the need to evaluate U.S. bilateral assistance (not on the work of multilateral aid entities, such as the World Bank) and methods of evaluation. It provides an overview of the history of evaluation, challenges, and how findings may be applied to policy. Additionally, it discusses current evaluation policies and issues for Congress.
Zika Response Funding: Request and Congressional Action
This report presents the Administration's request for supplemental appropriations for the Zika response. It includes sections outlining Congressional actions, the emergency supplemental appropriations request for Zika response efforts -- by both U.S. health and human services agencies and international assistance programs -- and information about unobligated Ebola response funds.
International Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions
The United States is the world's major provider of international food aid to low-income developing countries. This report provides three indicators of the U.S. contribution to global food aid: (1) shipments of major donors compiled by the International Grains Council, (2) U.S. contributions to the United Nations World Food Program (WFP), and (3) the U.S. commitment under the Food Aid Convention (FAC).
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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U.S. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues
This report includes three principal sections: a description of U.S. international food aid programs under current law; a discussion of several important policy issues related to U.S. international food aid; and a description of Administration and congressional proposals intended to change the nature of U.S. food international aid.
Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations
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Restructuring U.S. Foreign Aid: The Role of the Director of Foreign Assistance
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Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
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Trends in U.S. Foreign Food Aid, FY1992-FY2002
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Andean Regional Initiative (ARI): FY2002 Supplemental and FY2003 Assistance for Colombia and Neighbors
This report discusses President Bush's 2002 requests for new funding and additional authority to provide assistance to Colombia and six regional neighbors in a continuation of the Andean Regional Initiative (ARI) launched in 2001.
Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U.S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation
This report provides an overview and policy analysis of the Abu Sayyaf terrorist group in the Philippines and the recently announced Philippine-U.S. program of military cooperation against it. It examines the origins and operations of Abu Sayyaf, the efforts of the Philippine government and military to eliminate it, and the implications of a greater U.S. military role in attempts to suppress it. The report will be updated periodically.
Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges
Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a lingering food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and under-development that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report describes in detail the amount and types of emergency food aid and other relief aid that the United States has sent and will continue to send to Haiti. This report also outlines relevant pieces of legislation.
Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges
Haiti faces several interrelated challenges, the most immediate being a lingering food crisis that in April 2008 led to deadly protests and the ouster of Haiti's prime minister. Haiti also suffers from a legacy of poverty, unemployment, and under-development that is compounding security problems for its new and fragile democracy. This report describes in detail the amount and types of emergency food aid and other relief aid that the United States has sent and will continue to send to Haiti. This report also outlines relevant pieces of legislation.
The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
The powerful earthquake struck northern Pakistan and India damaged the homes of as many as three million people, forcing many of them to search for alternative means of shelter. The full extent of the destruction remains unknown because government authorities and relief organizations continue to have difficulty accessing some remote locations. As of the date of this report, the United States government (USG) has pledged $410 million toward the relief effort, almost all of it to assisting Pakistan, which remains a key U.S. ally in the war against terror. So far, about 35% of this pledge has been committed. Some aid agencies are saying that the country needs a great deal more aid than it is getting, and warn that the economic impact of the disaster will surpass $5.2 billion. This burden may contribute toward long-term instability in an area perceived to be of critical importance to the United States in the war on terror.
The Earthquake in South Asia: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
The powerful earthquake struck northern Pakistan and India damaged the homes of as many as three million people, forcing many of them to search for alternative means of shelter. The full extent of the destruction remains unknown because government authorities and relief organizations continue to have difficulty accessing some remote locations. As of the date of this report, the United States government (USG) has pledged $410 million toward the relief effort, almost all of it to assisting Pakistan, which remains a key U.S. ally in the war against terror. So far, about 35% of this pledge has been committed. Some aid agencies are saying that the country needs a great deal more aid than it is getting, and warn that the economic impact of the disaster will surpass $5.2 billion. This burden may contribute toward long-term instability in an area perceived to be of critical importance to the United States in the war on terror.
Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2006: A Fact Sheet on Department of Defense Authority to Train and Equip Foreign Military Forces
Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 provides the Secretary of Defense with authority to train and equip foreign military forces. Thus far, the Department of Defense (DOD) has used Section 1206 authority primarily to provide counterterrorism support. Section 1206 obligations totaled some $100 million in FY2006 and $279 million in FY2007. Obligations for FY2008 total almost $25 million as of May 20, 2008. Funds may only be obligated with the concurrence of the Secretary of State. This authority expires at the end of FY2008.
Ethiopian Food Situation: International Response
The United States has donated the largest share of the world-wide relief effort. Members of Congress nave passed legislation, the African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of 1985 (2.L. 99-8), authorizing emergency relief assistance to Ethiopia and other famine-stricken countries. Some observers favor trying to remove restrictions that prohibit long-term agricultural development assistance and other forms of economic aid to Ethiopia, but many continue to believe that aid to this Marxist-oriented nation should be limited to humanitarian relief. The Ethiopian food situation will probably remain a central issue among U.S. lawmakers and relief officials during the 99th Congress.
Kosovo: Refugee Assistance and Temporary Resettlement
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries
Agriculture (as measured by share of gross domestic product and employment) is a significant economic sector in seven Central and South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. All of these countries are net food importers. Some have experienced successive years of drought, which has contributed to noticeable declines in agricultural output and the need to increase commodity imports. The United Nations’ World Food Program reports that both Afghanistan and Tajikistan are currently in need of emergency food assistance to cover sizable food deficits. The food outlook in Afghanistan is made uncertain by ongoing military conflict.
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Assistance
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy
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East Central Europe: Status of International Criminal Court (ICC) Exemption Agreements and U.S. Military Assistance
In a broad effort to obtain U.S. exemptions from International Criminal Court (ICC) jurisdiction, the Bush Administration has sought to conclude bilateral agreements worldwide that would prohibit the transfer of U.S. citizens to the ICC. The European Union has strongly promoted the ICC and is opposed to the U.S.- proposed agreements. This report addresses twelve countries of east central Europe affected by the U.S. and European policies – Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia – and the status of their varied approaches to the transatlantic disagreement over the ICC.
U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel
This report provides an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to Israel. It includes a review of past aid programs, data on annual assistance, and an analysis of current issues.
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.
Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests
This report provides an overview of U.S. policy concerns and relations with countries in central Asia. The report discusses issues such as Fostering Pro-Western Orientations, Obstacles to Peace and Independence, Democratization and Human Rights, Security and Arms Control, Trade and Investment, and provides an Aid Overview.