Congressional Research Service Reports - 1,211 Matching Results

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The $50 Billion Threshold in the Dodd-Frank Act: Key Findings

Description: This report provides an overview key findings from the newly issued CRS Report R45036, Bank Systemic Risk Regulation: The $50 Billion Threshold in the Dodd-Frank Act. It includes some background information and a list of bills that may also affect the legislation.
Date: December 14, 2017
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Perkins, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Extraordinary Measures" and the Debt Limit

Description: This report briefly examines the statutory debt limit and the use of extraordinary measures by the Treasury Department when Congress does not modify the debt limit by the deadline.
Date: December 8, 2017
Creator: Driessen, Grant A. & Hughes, Joseph S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Description: This report is intended to address questions that arise frequently related to the topic of government shutdowns. It discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Date: November 30, 2017
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.; Brudnick, Ida A.; Keegan, Natalie; McMillion, Barry J.; Rollins, John W. & Yeh, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Sided Credit Card Markets: The Supreme Court Takes Up Novel Antitrust Issue

Description: This report discusses the case of "Ohio v. American Express" which the Supreme Court has accepted for hearing which poses the question of how federal antitrust law should treat two-sided markets which are platforms in which two distinct user groups operate in an interdependent way. The case challenges anti-steering clauses in American Express contract agreements with merchants that prevent the merchants from promoting the use of other credit cards. The case has the potential to change the way vendors accept card payments across the country--but the case also provides the Supreme Court with the opportunity to guide the lower courts that are increasingly confronting antitrust issues concerning two-sided markets. As a result, the American Express case raises several issues for Congress that could implicate its legislative and oversight roles with respect to the financial services industry and, more generally, the regulation of two-sided markets.
Date: November 13, 2017
Creator: Smith, Austin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treasury Proposes Rule that Could Deliver a 'Death Sentence" to Chinese Bank

Description: This report discusses the Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) proposal to invoke the "Fifth Special Measure" on the Chinese Bank of Dandong for its alleged role in funding and and processing transactions for North Korea's weapons programs.
Date: October 30, 2017
Creator: Carpenter, David H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Small Business Lending Fund

Description: This report discusses on the Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF). It begins with a discussion of the supply and demand for small business loans. The SBLF's advocates argued that the fund was an important part of a larger effort to enhance the supply of small business loans. After describing the program's structure, the report then examines other arguments that were presented both for and against the program's enactment. Advocates claimed the SBLF would increase lending to small businesses and, in turn, create jobs. Opponents contended that the SBLF could lose money, lacked sufficient oversight provisions, did not require lenders to increase their lending to small businesses, could serve as a vehicle for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) recipients to effectively refinance their TARP loans on more favorable terms with little or no resulting benefit for small businesses, and could encourage a failing lender to make even riskier loans to avoid higher dividend payments. The report concludes with an examination of the SBLF's implementation by the Department of the Treasury and a discussion of bills introduced during recent Congresses to amend the SBLF.
Date: October 27, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: Cost-of-Living Adjustments

Description: This report discusses the cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs) for Social Security and the upcoming COLA set to begin in January 2018. Calculations used to determine COLA amounts and a brief history of their use is also included.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commodity Futures Trading Commission: Proposed Reauthorization in the 115th Congress

Description: This report examines selected major H.R. 238 provisions that would authorize appropriations for the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) of $250 million for each of FY2017 through FY2021, expand the current 5 cost-benefit analysis provisions in the CEA to 12 considerations and add a requirement that the CFTC conduct quantitative as well as qualitative assessments, potentially broaden the bona fide hedging definition to allow anticipated, as well as current, risks to be hedged, which might increase the number of swaps that qualify as hedges, and mandate that, starting 18 months from enactment, the regulatory requirements of the eight largest foreign swaps markets be considered comparable to those of the United States--unless the CFTC issued a rule finding that any of those foreign jurisdictions' requirements were not comparable to U.S. requirements.
Date: September 29, 2017
Creator: Miller, Rena S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: The Trust Funds

Description: This report covers how the Social Security program is financed and how the Social Security trust funds work. It will be updated annually to reflect current projections of the financial status of the Social Security trust funds.
Date: September 12, 2017
Creator: Morton, William R. & Liou, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security: What Would Happen if the Trust Funds Ran Out?

Description: This report explains what the Social Security trust funds are and how they work. It describes the historical operations of the trust funds and the Social Security trustees' projections of future operations. It explains what could happen if Congress allowed the trust funds to run out. It also analyzes two scenarios that assume Congress waits until the moment of insolvency to act, showing the magnitude of benefit cuts or tax increases needed and how such changes would affect beneficiaries.
Date: September 12, 2017
Creator: Morton, William R. & Liou, Wayne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Financial CHOICE Act in the 115th Congress: Selected Policy Issues

Description: This report highlights major proposals included in the Financial CHOICE Act (FCA) but is not a comprehensive summary. In general, the bill proposes changes that can be divided into two categories: (1) changes to financial policies and regulations and (2) changes to the regulatory structure and rulemaking process. Major policy-related changes proposed by the FCA include the following: Leverage Ratio, Regulatory Relief, To Big To Fail, Funding, Rulemaking, Judicial Review, Enforcement, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), and the Federal Reserve.
Date: September 8, 2017
Creator: Labonte, Marc; Carpenter, David H.; Davis, Christopher M.; Perkins, David W.; Shorter, Gary & Webel, Baird
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

S. 488, H.R. 1343, and Section 406 of H.R. 10: Encouraging Employee Ownership

Description: This report provides background and a policy discussion of similar legislation, S. 488, H.R. 1343 (which passed the House on April 4, 2017), and Section 406 in H.R. 10, the Financial CHOICE Act, which passed the House on June 8, 2017. According to H.R. 1343's sponsor, Representative Randy Hultgren, the legislation is aimed at "eas[ing] the ability of companies to offer ownership to their ... employees."
Date: August 22, 2017
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues

Description: This report discusses corporate inversions and mergers; these actions change the parent company to one based in another country with a low tax rate to avoid paying U.S. corporate taxes. It discusses past attempts and legislation outlawing varying forms of inversion, the most recent regulations issued by the Treasury Department to decrease inversions, and policy options that would remove the incentive for companies to invert.
Date: August 17, 2017
Creator: Marples, Donald J. & Gravelle, Jane G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

For First Time, FinCEN Imposes Penalty on Foreign-Based Virtual Currency Exchange for Violations of Anti-Money Laundering Laws

Description: This report discusses the first case of enforcement by the U.S. Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) against a foreign-based virtual currency exchange. The action was taken agains BTC-e for violations of anti-money laundering regulations in the U.S. and potential money laundering activities.
Date: August 17, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of the U.S. Financial Regulatory Framework

Description: This report attempts to set out the basic frameworks and principles underlying U.S. financial regulation and to give some historical context for the development of that system. The first section briefly discusses the various modes of financial regulation and the next section identifies the major federal regulators and the types of institutions they supervise (see Table 1). It then provides a brief overview of each federal financial regulatory agency. Finally, the report discusses other entities that play a role in financial regulation--interagency bodies, state regulators, and international standards.
Date: August 17, 2017
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues

Description: This report examines debates over what constitutes an unfunded federal mandate and the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act's (UMRA) implementation. It focuses on UMRA's requirement that CBO issue written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in legislation, its procedures for raising points of order in the House and Senate concerning unfunded federal mandates in legislation, and its requirement that federal agencies prepare written cost estimate statements for federal mandates in rules. It also assesses UMRA's impact on federal mandates and arguments concerning UMRA's future, focusing on UMRA's definitions, exclusions, and exceptions that currently exempt many federal actions with potentially significant financial impacts on nonfederal entities. An examination of the rise of unfunded federal mandates as a national issue and a summary of UMRA's legislative history are provided in Appendix A. Citations to UMRA points of order raised in the House and Senate are provided in Appendix B.
Date: August 7, 2017
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medicare Primer

Description: This report provides a general overview of the Medicare program including descriptions of the program's history, eligibility criteria, covered services, provider payment systems, and program administration and financing. A list of commonly used acronyms, as well as information on beneficiary cost sharing, may be found in the appendixes.
Date: August 2, 2017
Creator: Davis, Patricia A.; Binder, Cliff; Hahn, Jim; Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.; Morgan, Paulette C. & Villagrana, Marco A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department