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Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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The Overseas Private Investment Corporation: Background and Legislative Issues

Description: The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) was established in 1969 and began operations in 1971 as a development agency to promote and assist U.S. business investment in developing nations. Today, OPIC is a U.S. government agency that provides project financing, investment insurance, and other services for U.S. businesses in over 150 developing nations and emerging economies. To date, OPIC has funded, guaranteed, or insured over $180 billion in investments.
Date: December 1, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. It contains a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Description: The United States is the largest investor abroad and the largest recipient of direct investment in the world. This report discusses pertinent issues regarding foreign investments and their effects on the U.S. economy.
Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Description: This report discusses the Export-Import Bank (Ex-In Bank), the chief U.S. government agency that helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers. This report discusses the Bank's budget and related legislation, including the Omnibus Appropriations Act of 2009, signed by President Barack Obama and authorizing spending limitations for the Bank.
Date: March 17, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): Efforts to Support Financial and Housing Markets

Description: This report discusses recent actions taken by the FDIC in support of financial and housing markets, which include restoration of the Deposit Insurance Fund, the development of the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program, efforts to reduce foreclosures, and establishment of the proposed Public-Private Investment Fund. Legislation such as H.R. 786 (introduced by Representative Barney Frank); H.R. 1106, Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009 (introduced by Representative John Conyers, Jr., with 24 co-sponsors); and S. 541, The Depositor Protection Act of 2009 (introduced by Senator Christopher Dodd with 12 co-sponsors) have also been introduced to increase the effectiveness of the FDIC’s efforts to respond to recent market weaknesses.
Date: March 27, 2009
Creator: Getter, Darryl E. & Gonzales, Oscar R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insurance Regulation: Issues, Background, and Legislation in the 111th Congress

Description: This report discusses congressional and action on insurance regulation in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although the financial crisis has changed the focus of the debate surrounding insurance regulatory reform, many of the pre-crisis pressures for regulatory changes continue.
Date: August 19, 2009
Creator: Webel, Baird
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

Description: This report examines the de facto foreign exchange rate policies adopted by the monetary authorities of East Asia. In some cases, there is a perceived discrepancy between the official (de jure) exchange rate policy and the observed de facto exchange rate policy. This report will focus primarily on the de facto exchange rate policies.
Date: July 16, 2009
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Background and Policy Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background on sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) -- investment funds owned and managed by national governments -- including countries operating SWFs and the size of the SWF market. It also discusses broad areas of concern to Members of Congress and the international financial community.
Date: January 15, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preserving Homeownership: Foreclosure Prevention Initiatives

Description: This report describes the consequences of foreclosure on homeowners, outlines recent foreclosure prevention plans implemented by the government and private organizations, and discusses the challenges associated with foreclosure prevention.
Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Jones, Katie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Market Supervision: Canada's Perspective

Description: This report presents an overview of Canada's financial system and its supervisory framework and draws some distinctions between that system and the current U.S. framework.
Date: November 25, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Market Supervision: European Perspectives

Description: This report addresses the European perspectives on a number of proposals that are being advanced for financial oversight and regulation in Europe. The European experience may be instructive because financial markets in Europe are well developed, European firms often are competitors of U.S. firms, and European governments have faced severe problems of integration and consistency across the various financial structures that exist in Europe.
Date: November 20, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Market Supervision: European Perspectives

Description: This report addresses the European perspectives on a number of proposals that are being advanced for financial oversight and regulation in Europe. The European experience may be instructive because financial markets in Europe are well developed, European firms often are competitors of U.S. firms, and European governments have faced severe problems of integration and consistency across the various financial structures that exist in Europe.
Date: August 25, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Market Turmoil and U.S. Macroeconomic Performance

Description: Lending in credit markets requires confidence in the borrowers' ability to repay the debt (principal and interest) in full and on schedule. The current turmoil in U.S. financial markets is the result of a breakdown in that necessary confidence. A number of indicators have pointed to a substantial rise in the cost of credit and a decrease in the flow of credit to the broader economy. Economic policy may be needed to get credit flowing smoothly again and to mitigate the damage incurred by households and non-financial businesses. Three types of policy response exist and are being applied in varying degrees. This report discusses each of these policy responses.
Date: June 9, 2009
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preserving Homeownership: Foreclosure Prevention Initiatives

Description: This report describes the consequences of foreclosure on homeowners, outlines recent foreclosure prevention plans implemented by the government and private organizations, and discusses the challenges associated with foreclosure prevention.
Date: July 6, 2009
Creator: Jones, Katie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Banking and Financial Infrastructure Continuity: Pandemic Flu, Terrorism, and Other Challenges

Description: This report outlines the financial sector's recovery plans for two kinds of disasters: the inability to conduct transactions and large losses of asset value. The basic function of the payment system is carried out by banks, and monetary policy affects banks immediately. Because brokers, exchanges, secondary market facilities, and insurance companies carry out crucial financial functions, their regulators and trade associations are involved in continuity of operations planning for contingencies.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Weiss, N. E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The African Development Bank Group

Description: This report discusses the African Development Bank (AfDB) Group, which is a regional development bank (RDB) "dedicated to combating poverty and improving the lives of people of the continent." It comprises three lending facilities: the market rate facility, the AfDB; a concessional lending facility, the African Development Fund; and a trust fund established by Nigeria to lend to low-income African countries. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States.
Date: January 30, 2009
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): Summary of Actions in Support of Housing and Financial Markets

Description: This report discusses recent actions taken by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in support of housing and financial markets, including: a temporary increase in deposit insurance as required by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-343), the resolution of bank failures, the development of the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (TLGP), and efforts to reduce foreclosures.
Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Gonzales, Oscar R. & Getter, Darryl E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Reauthorization: An Overview of Legislative Action in the 111th Congress

Description: This report tracks the status of ongoing legislative action and debate related to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reauthorization. It is organized into six major program areas: aviation system finance; airport financing; FAA management and organizational issues; system capacity and safety; environmental issues; and airline industry issues. In several cases, provisions that appear in various unrelated sections of proposed legislation have been rearranged in this report in an effort to group and discuss related items in an issue-driven or programmatic context. Since this report is primarily written as a means of communicating key legislative provisions under consideration in the ongoing FAA reauthorization process, it does not go into detail regarding the specific policy issues behind these legislative proposals.
Date: October 8, 2009
Creator: Elias, Bart
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department