Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Negotiated Rulemaking
This report discusses negotiated rulemaking, a supplement to traditional rulemaking, which is a process in which representatives of federal agencies and affected parties work together in a committee to reach consensus on what can ultimately become a proposed rule. Although negotiated rulemaking is not appropriate for all regulations, advocates believe that the approach can speed rule development, reduce litigation, and generate more creative and effective regulatory solutions.
Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations
This report examines the federal laws and regulations relevant to entering into Government employment from the private sector. It is intended to provide those conducting congressional oversight with an outline of some of the issues, rules, regulations, ad oversight tools that may be available regarding this subject.
Can Agencies Take Actions That They Are Not Expressly Authorized by Statute to Take?
This Legal Sidebar on statutory interpretation addresses the question of whether executive branch agencies are barred from taking actions that Congress has not specifically authorized them to take.
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): History and Overview
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected recurrent issues for Congress regarding OSTP's Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
This report discuses the National Science Foundation (NSF), which provides support for investigator-initiated, merit-reviewed, competitively selected awards, state-of-the-art tools, and instrumentation and facilities. The majority of the research supported by the NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities.
Statements of Administration Policy
This report discusses Statements of Administration Policy (SAPs) -- i.e., statements that communicate the Administration's position on upcoming legislation -- including structural components, the development of SAPs from the Ronald Reagan Administration to the present, the coordination of executive branch actors involved in issuing SAPs, the receipt of SAPs and their impact on government institutions, and possible reactions to SAPs when they are released publicly.
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): History and Overview
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President and discusses selected recurrent issues for Congress regarding Office of Science and Technology Policy's (OSTP) Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations Highlights
This report discusses issues regarding the funding of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As enacted in August 2005, Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provided $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%.
U.S. Geological Survey: Its Mission and Its Future
No Description Available.
Creation of Executive Departments: Highlights from the Legislative History of Modern Precedents
This report describes the principal elements of legislative process used to establish these executive branch entities. Legislative histories of the organic acts of these Cabinet departments are set out in narrative form in the body of the report, and in tabular format in the appendix.
Creation of Executive Departments: Highlights from the Legislative History of Modern Precedents
This report describes the principal elements of legislative process used to establish these executive branch entities. Legislative histories of the organic acts of these Cabinet departments are set out in narrative form in the body of the report, and in tabular format in the appendix.
The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of the history of science and technology (S&T) advice to the President. It also discusses selected issues and options for Congress regarding OSTP's Director, OSTP management and operations, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).
Food and Drug Administration: Selected Funding and Policy Issues
No Description Available.
The Trade and Development Agency
No Description Available.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 109th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
This report discusses the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. companies. NIST research also provides the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
This report discusses the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. companies. NIST research also provides the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview
No Description Available.
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
No Description Available.
The Role of Departments and Agencies in Budget Development
No Description Available.
Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies
In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys’ fees of the prevailing party. The major common law exception authorizes federal courts (not agencies) to order a losing party that acts in bad faith to pay the prevailing party’s fees. This report discusses the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA), which makes the United States liable for attorneys’ fees of up to $125 per hour in many court cases and administrative proceedings that it loses (and some that it wins) and fails to prove that its position was substantially justified.
Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies
In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys' fees of the prevailing party. There are roughly two hundred statutory exceptions, which were generally enacted to encourage private litigation to implement public policy.
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions
After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders.
Food and Drug Administration: Selected Funding and Policy Issues for FY2000
No Description Available.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
No Description Available.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
No Description Available.
The Peace Corps: Current Issues
As it prepares authorization and Foreign Operations appropriations legislation in 2006, Congress will consider the FY2007 level of funding for the Peace Corps and related issues.
The Civil Works Program of the Army Corps of Engineers: A Primer
This report outlines the agency’s organization, project development process, civil works appropriations, and evolution of its responsibilities.
Foreign Policy Agency Reorganization in the 105th Congress
No Description Available.
The National Transportation Safety Board: Background and Issues for Reauthorization and Congressional Oversight
No Description Available.
The National Transportation Safety Board: Background and Issues for Reauthorization and Congressional Oversight
No Description Available.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Appropriations Overview
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. firms and provide the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce. Congressional debate has focused on the merits of NIST's external R&D programs directed toward increased private sector commercialization, including the now terminated Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). This report discusses the funding for such programs.
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description Available.
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description Available.
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description Available.
Reauthorization of the Federal Aviation Administration
No Description Available.