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Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present

Description: Statutory offices of inspector general (OIG) consolidate responsibility for audits and investigations within a federal agency. Established by public law as permanent, nonpartisan, independent offices, they now exist in more than 60 establishments and entities, including all departments and largest agencies, along with numerous boards and commissions. Various initiatives and proposals in the 110th Congress are designed to strengthen the IGs' independence, add to their reports, and create new posts in the Intelligence Community.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Fire Administration: An Overview

Description: The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) - which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA) - is currently an entity within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. This report describes and analyzes the Administration's FY2009 budget proposal, as well as related information and legislation.
Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States Fire Administration: An Overview

Description: The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) - which includes the National Fire Academy (NFA) - is currently an entity within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The objective of the USFA is to significantly reduce the nation's loss of life from fire, while also achieving a reduction in property loss and non-fatal injury due to fire. This report describes and analyzes the Administration's FY2009 budget proposal, as well as related information and legislation.
Date: October 10, 2008
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs): An Institutional Overview

Description: Congress chartered government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) to improve the workings of credit markets. This report briefly describes the nature of GSEs, their mixed governmental-private nature, the differences between GSEs and government agencies, and the arguments for and against GSEs.
Date: September 9, 2008
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance

Description: Congress has expressed a great deal of interest in using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to surveil the United States' international land border. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher & Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States' borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the United States Coast Guard, and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). This report briefly describes each agency's role in securing our nation's borders.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Nunez-Neto, Blas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Guard Personnel and Deployments: Fact Sheet

Description: The National Guard plays a major role in the defense and security of the United States under the federal component of its mission. A January 2008 report by the congressionally chartered independent Commission on the National Guard and Reserves has found that the U.S. military's lack of "sufficiently trained, ready forces available" to respond to possible domestic attacks "is an appalling gap that places the nation and its citizens at greater risk." The report estimated that fewer than 88% of Army National Guard units are "combat-ready." This report presents statistical information on the National Guard's federal role in defense and security, including its deployments in support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation Jump Start.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Waterhouse, Michael & O'Bryant, JoAnne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Protective Service and Contract Security Guards: A Statutory History and Current Status

Description: The Federal Protective Service (FPS) -- within U.S. Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) -- is responsible for protecting federal government property, personnel, visitors, and customers, including property leased by the General Services Administration (GSA). FPS currently employs over 15,000 contract security guards to protect federal property. DHS intends, according to its FY2009 budget justification, to continue the use of contract security guards to focus FPS activities on maintaining security policy and standards, conducting building security assessments, and monitoring federal agency compliance with security standards.
Date: May 29, 2008
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Protective Service and Contract Security Guards: A Statutory History and Current Status

Description: The Federal Protective Service (FPS) -- within U.S. Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) -- is responsible for protecting federal government property, personnel, visitors, and customers, including property leased by the General Services Administration (GSA). FPS currently employs over 15,000 contract security guards to protect federal property. DHS intends, according to its FY2009 budget justification, to continue the use of contract security guards to focus FPS activities on maintaining security policy and standards, conducting building security assessments, and monitoring federal agency compliance with security standards.
Date: June 30, 2008
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Protective Service and Contract Security Guards: A Statutory History and Current Status

Description: The Federal Protective Service (FPS) -- within U.S. Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) -- is responsible for protecting federal government property, personnel, visitors, and customers, including property leased by the General Services Administration (GSA). FPS currently employs over 15,000 contract security guards to protect federal property. DHS intends, according to its FY2009 budget justification, to continue the use of contract security guards to focus FPS activities on maintaining security policy and standards, conducting building security assessments, and monitoring federal agency compliance with security standards.
Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?

Description: Developments in wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy -- are beginning to gain momentum. At the same time, their regulatory status is still evolving, as shown by recent changes in law aimed at clarifying hte federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. Two federal agencies currently appear to have a lead role in offshore renewable energy projects -- the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).
Date: October 7, 2008
Creator: Lane, Nic
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies

Description: In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys' fees of the prevailing party. There are roughly two hundred statutory exceptions, which were generally enacted to encourage private litigation to implement public policy.
Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

Description: The majority of the research supported by the NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities. Approximately 82.7% ($3,094.8 million) of NSF's FY2006 $3,740.6 million research and development (R&D) budget was awarded to U.S. colleges and universities. On September 30, 2008, the President signed into law the Consolidated Security, Disaster Assistance, and Continuing Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 110-329, H.R. 2638). The act includes, among other things, three of the 12 regular appropriations acts for FY2009. The Continuing Appropriations Act funds the NSF until passage of the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Appropriations bill or until March 6, 2009, whichever occurs first. P.L. 110-329 funds the NSF at the FY2008 level.
Date: October 24, 2008
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Appropriations Overview

Description: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. firms and provide the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce. Congressional debate has focused on the merits of NIST's external R&D programs directed toward increased private sector commercialization, including the now terminated Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). This report discusses the funding for such programs.
Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Description: Congress in 2006 agreed to temporarily consolidate separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NNSA) into a single CI office under DOE control. This report analyzes both consolidations — the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy (DOE) request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program.
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress

Description: This report examines how the Department of Energy's (DOE) polygraph testing program has evolved and reviews certain scientific findings with regard to the polygraph's scientific validity. Several issues include whether: DOE's new screening program is focused on an appropriate number of individuals occupying only the most sensitive positions; the program should be expanded in order to adequately safeguard certain classified information; further research into the polygraph's scientific validity is needed; there are possible alternatives to the polygraph; and whether DOE should continue polygraph screening.
Date: October 23, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Description: This report analyzes the temporary consolidations of the separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NSA) into a single CI office under DOE control — the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program.
Date: July 28, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the evolving mission, organization, and assets of the S&T Directorate and the activities it conducts. It outlines key policy issues, including the balance of the directorate's programs, its priorities and how they are set, its relationships with other R&D organizations, its mission, its budgeting and financial management, and other concerns.
Date: June 9, 2008
Creator: Shea, Dana A. & Morgan, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. For both defense authorization and appropriations, this report summarizes the status of the bills, their scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity. This report is updated as events warrant and lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered as well as related CRS products.
Date: May 16, 2008
Creator: Towell, Pat & Daggett, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2009 Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Subcommittees. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Else, Daniel H.; Scott, Christine & Panangala, Sidath Viranga
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commerce, Justice, Science and Related Agencies: FY2009 Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Krouse, William J. & Murphy, Edward Vincent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Defense Base Act (DBA): The Federally Mandated Workers' Compensation System for Overseas Government Contractors

Description: This report provides an overview of the Defense Base Act (DBA) and the systems used to provide DBA insurance at the Department of State (DOS), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Also included are criticisms of the current DOD DBA policy raised by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Army auditors as well as responses to those criticisms by DOD and USACE. The report concludes with a discussion of several DBA reform options suggested by the House of Representatives in recent legislation.
Date: September 15, 2008
Creator: Grasso, Valerie Bailey; Szymendera, Scott & Webel, Baird
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Defense Role in Foreign Assistance: Background, Major Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report provides background information on and discusses issues related to the DOD's role in providing U.S. foreign assistance and undertaking foreign assistance-type activities. Topics include the types of assistance DOD provides, the authorities under which DOD conducts its programs, and coordination and cooperation mechanisms between DOD and other agencies. The report begins with a brief introduction to the three areas in which DOD plays a role in foreign assistance and to Congress's part in authorizing that role. Next, the report briefly discusses the general evolution of DOD's role and the Department of State's current perception of that role based on current national security needs. The report then provides an overview of the evolution of the DOD role and current activities in the three areas cited above, with a snapshot of the varying perspectives on the DOD roles in these areas. Finally, the report discusses issues that Congress may wish to consider. The appendices provide more detailed information on the current and most significant foreign assistance programs in which DOD plays a role.
Date: August 25, 2008
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.; Dale, Catherine; Grimmett, Richard F.; Margesson, Rhoda; Rollins, John; Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives

Description: This report analyzes the temporary consolidations of the separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NSA) into a single CI office under DOE control the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program.
Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department