Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Description: This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources.
Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing: CRS Experts

Description: This report contains tables that provide names and contact information for CRS experts on major issues associated with hydraulic fracturing and unconventional oil and gas resource development.
Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Tiemann, Mary & Ratner, Michael
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Science: Key Points

Description: This report discusses the climate change science, that though often is portrayed as controversial there is a broad scientific agreement over many points. The report provides data on long-term temperature observations, estimate of human-related versus solar contributions to global temperature change over the 20th century, estimated top 20 emitting nations of greenhouse gases in 2010, and sea ice extent in Arctic (September) and Antarctica (April), 1979 to 2012
Date: September 10, 2013
Creator: Leggett, Jane A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Report that is written in response to the Coast Guard's budget request for a new polar ice breaker, of which the Coast Guard currently has none in operation. Polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. Issues for Congress include what to do with decommissioned ice breakers, the impact of having no ice breakers, how to budget for new ice breakers, and how future ice breakers should be obtained.
Date: July 24, 2013
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Date: August 8, 2013
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL: Assessing the Proposed Pipeline's Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Description: This report provides background information regarding the Keystone XL pipeline proposal and the process required for federal approval. The report discusses the state department's GHG emissions assessment and provides concluding observations.
Date: August 15, 2013
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulation of Fertilizers: Ammonium Nitrate and Anhydrous Ammonia

Description: This report will focus on some of the federal regulatory programs overseeing storage of ammonium nitrate and anhydrous ammonia by retailers. The report will not address federal regulation of material in transport. It will discuss federal occupational safety, environmental, and security statutes and regulations applicable to each chemical. Select policy issues regarding these federal regulatory programs will be highlighted. It does not address various law enforcement activities related to tracking of anhydrous ammonia used for illegal drug synthesis (e.g., methamphetamine).
Date: July 31, 2013
Creator: Shea, Dana A.; Schierow, Linda-Jo & Szymendera, Scott D.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress

Description: Report regarding legislative actions that explicitly address climate change issues. The provisions in these bills fall into six general categories: carbon price (i.e., tax or fee) on greenhouse (GHG) emissions; other mechanisms intended to encourage mitigation of GHG emissions (e.g., sequestration of emissions); research on climate change-related issues; adaptation activities related to expected climate change impacts; support for international climate change-related activities; and action that limits or prohibits climate change-related authorities, efforts, or considerations.
Date: September 16, 2013
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

Description: This report summarizes congressional authorization and appropriations processes for the Corps. It also discusses agency activities under general authorities. Congress directs the Corps through authorizations, appropriations, and oversight of its studies, construction projects, and other activities.
Date: October 18, 2013
Creator: Carter, Nicole T. & Stern, Charles V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

Description: This report provides background information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory activity during the Obama Administration to help address these issues. It examines major or controversial regulatory actions taken by or under development at EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule (including identification of related court or statutory deadlines), and, in general, providing EPA's estimates of costs and benefits, where available. The report includes tables that show which rules remain under development, and an appendix that describes major or controversial rules that are now final.
Date: December 12, 2013
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA's Vessel General Permit: Background and Issues

Description: This report is an overview of the revised Vessel General Permit (VGP) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and two key issues: inclusion of numeric performance standards to limit ballast water discharges from vessels, and controversies about the role of states in regulating vessel discharges.
Date: January 8, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

Description: This report discusses the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program which regulates pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained; section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. The report focuses on new challenges facing the TMDL program, including more complex TMDLs, larger scale impairments, and nonpoint sources.
Date: January 17, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorizations, Appropriations, and Activities

Description: This report summarizes congressional authorization and appropriations processes for the Army Corps of Engineers. It also discusses agency activities under general authorities. Congress directs the Corps through authorizations, appropriations, and oversight of its studies, construction projects, and other activities.
Date: January 29, 2014
Creator: Carter, Nicole T. & Stern, Charles V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific relevant topics.
Date: February 14, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The report is written in response to the Coast Guard's budget request for a new polar ice breaker (none are currently in operation).
Date: February 11, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific relevant topics.
Date: February 27, 2014
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Description: This report discusses the federally-mandated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program for controlling stormwater discharges from industrial plants and municipalities.
Date: March 21, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department