Congressional Research Service Reports - 424 Matching Results

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Nondiscrimination in Environmental Regulation: A Legal Analysis

Description: This report will examine the relevant legal authorities that may be asserted to address disproportionate impacts that result from how an agency implements environmental regulations, including the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and various environmental and conservation statutes. It will discuss administrative efforts to address "environmental justice," a term used by some advocates to refer to the distribution of environmental quality across various demographic groups, including the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Plan EJ 2014. It will also analyze the use of these authorities to prevent such impacts and the likelihood of success for future challenges under each legal theory.
Date: February 6, 2013
Creator: Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

Description: This report provides background information on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory activity during the Obama Administration to help address these issues. It examines major or controversial regulatory actions taken by or under development at EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule (including identification of related court or statutory deadlines), and, in general, providing EPA's estimates of costs and benefits, where available. The report includes tables that show which rules remain under development, and an appendix that describes major or controversial rules that are now final.
Date: March 19, 2014
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Description: This report discusses four general areas related to open ocean aquaculture: (1) operational and business-related challenges; (2) potential economic impacts; (3) potential environmental impacts; and (4) the legal and regulatory environment. It summarizes recent executive and legislative branch actions.
Date: June 12, 2008
Creator: Upton, Harold F. & Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

Description: This report identifies the potential environmental, health, and safety opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology; explains the importance of addressing nanotechnology environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns; identifies and discusses nanotechnology EHS issues; and summarizes options for Congressional action, including the nanotechnology EHS-related provisions of selected legislation. The report also includes two appendices.
Date: August 6, 2008
Creator: Sargent, John F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change

Description: This report discusses different perspectives used to consider issues related to the global climate change and issues related to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Agreement.
Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A & Justus, John R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?

Description: This report discusses the recent emissions estimates with the greenhouse gas (GHG) and addresses the question, are carbon dioxide emissions rising more rapidly than expected?
Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Leggett, Jane A. & Logan, Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 11th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Description: This report discusses U.S. policy toward global climate change, which evolved from a "study only" to a more "study and action" orientation in 1992 with ratification of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Date: February 25, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L.; Sheikh, Pervaze A.; Meltz, Robert & Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA's Final Health and Safety Standard for Yucca Mountain

Description: This report discusses the awaited revision of the 2001 Public Health and Safety Standard for the proposed Yucca Mountain deep geologic repository, high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.
Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Gitlin, Bonnie C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change

Description: This report discusses the effect of human activities on global climate change. Human activities, particularly burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide.
Date: December 4, 1996
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutional Bounds on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment

Description: This report reviews five newly-emergent constitutional areas related to environmental issues, based on Supreme Court decisions. For each area, the focus is its significance for current and future federal environmental legislation.
Date: December 18, 2002
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup

Description: This report provides an overview of cleanup requirements for the transfer and reuse of base closure properties, discusses the status of property transfer on bases closed under prior rounds, examines costs to clean up bases closed under these prior rounds, and discusses cleanup costs and issues for the 2005 round.
Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change

Description: This report briefly reviews the status of climate science, international negotiations, and congressional activity focused specifically on climate change.
Date: May 12, 2006
Creator: Justus, John R. & Fletcher, Susan R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Description: This report provides background and analysis on several issues related to the Clean Air Act, including: Clear Skies / Multi-Pollutant Legislation, Mercury from Power Plants, New Source Review (NSR), MTBE and Ethanol, Ozone Nonattainment Area Deadlines, and Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs. It also discusses the most recent developments.
Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Considerations in Federal Procurement: An Overview of the Legal Authorities and Their Implementation

Description: This report discusses issues about the role of environmental considerations in federal procurement. These include: to what extent do agencies consider environmental factors when procuring goods or services? What legal authorities presently require or allow agencies to take environmental factors into account when acquiring goods or services?
Date: June 21, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Halchin, L. Elaine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Federal Real Property Disposal Requirements and Procedures

Description: This report begins with an explanation of the central role played by the General Services Administration (GSA) in the disposal of federal real estate property at most agencies. It then provides a discussion of the unique disposal processes at Department of Defense and the U.S. Postal Service (USPS), which each have independent statutory authority to dispose of their own properties. It concludes with an overview of the environmental and historic preservation requirements that apply to the disposal of properties at all federal agencies.
Date: December 10, 2014
Creator: Hatch, Garrett; Else, Daniel H.; Luther, Linda; Bearden, David M. & Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: Congressional Responses and Options

Description: This report provides background and discusses four options to address greenhouse gas (GHG) sources: (1) resolutions of disapproval under the Congressional Review Act; (2) freestanding legislation directing, delaying, or prohibiting EPA action; (3) the use of appropriations bills as a vehicle to influence EPA activity; and (4) amendments to the Clean Air Act, including legislation to establish a new GHG control regime.
Date: February 5, 2015
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2016

Description: This report serves as a brief overview of the Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and its structure, intents, and funding history. The GCCI aims to integrate climate change considerations into U.S. foreign assistance through a range of bilateral, multilateral, and private sector mechanisms to promote sustainable and climate-resilient societies, foster low-carbon economic growth, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and land degradation.
Date: February 6, 2015
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses issues regarding the Clean Water Act. Prospects for legislative initiatives to comprehensively amend the Clean Water Act (CWA) have stalled for some time over whether and exactly how to change the law, and Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected CWA programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. For example, the 108th Congress enacted one bill amending the CWA, legislation to reauthorize the National Estuary Program (H.R. 4731, P.L. 108-399).
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Description: This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments.
Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department