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Keystone XL Pipeline: Overview and Recent Developments

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Pipeline Project and the process that the State Department must complete to decide whether it will approve or deny TransCanada's permit application. The report also discusses key energy security, economic, and environmental issues relevant to this determination. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: April 1, 2015
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Luther, Linda; Lattanzio, Richard K.; Ramseur, Jonathan L.; Vann, Adam; Pirog, Robert et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project Presidential Permit application, and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: May 7, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: April 9, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Project Presidential Permit application, and the process that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also reviews selected issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline's developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Date: January 24, 2013
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Description: This report describes the Keystone XL pipeline project, as proposed by TransCanada in its May 4, 2012, Presidential Permit application, and the process and procedures that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also summarizes issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline’s developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report reviews the constitutional basis for the State Department’s authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents’ possible challenges to this authority.
Date: November 5, 2012
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Description: This report focuses on electricity efficiency in buildings. It also discusses improved energy efficiency in transportation (to and from buildings), reducing direct use of fossil fuels in buildings, and reducing energy use or carbon emissions associated with building materials and construction (e.g., steel and concrete).
Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Description: Federal policymakers are debating a range of potential initiatives for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from U.S. energy sources. An overarching policy issue which arises from carbon control proposals is how the CO2 reduction targets could be achieved. One method that has garnered significant attention is increasing the electricity efficiency in buildings. Analysts have identified a number of critical socioeconomic and policy barriers which have historically limited the impact of federal and state building efficiency programs. This report describes those barriers, the degree to which federal law has addressed them, and their implications for meeting future U.S. carbon reduction targets.
Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Description: Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
Date: January 7, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Description: Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
Date: January 28, 1997
Creator: Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of S.1401, H.R. 655, H.R. 1230, S. 722, H.R. 1960, and S. 2287

Description: Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. At the current time, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies, such as gas-fired combined cycle, has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and lowered the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has been combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector. The questions now are whether further legislative action is desirable to encourage competition in the electric utility sector and how the transition between a comprehensive regulatory regime to a more competitive electric utility sector can be made with the least amount of economic and service disruption.
Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of Comprehensive Bills

Description: Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. Currently, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Parker, Larry & Abel, Amy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations

Description: This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change.
Date: December 24, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Date: October 25, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Date: March 19, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity Restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality

Description: In the context of federal and state proposals to restructure the electric utility industry, this paper analyzes forces and policies affecting utility generation that may have consequences for emissions of air pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Key concerns are potential increases in nitrogen oxide emissions, raising questions about the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act to regulate a restructured industry, and in carbon dioxide emissions, which are not currently regulated but could be if the U.S. ratifies the Kyoto Agreement. These issues may be raised in the context of electricity restructuring legislation. For ongoing legislative activities, see CRS Issue Brief IB10006, Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring.
Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors

Description: This report includes analyses of the potential effect of the tax credit for nuclear power provided by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and possible competitive effects of various proposals to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
Date: November 6, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry & Holt, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview

Description: During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes.
Date: November 10, 1982
Creator: Parker, Larry; Bamberger, Robert L. & Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The LIHEAP Formula

Description: This report discusses two types of formulas used to allocate funding to the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) through regular and contingency funding.
Date: May 21, 2014
Creator: Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIHEAP: Program and Funding

Description: This report discusses two types of formulas used to allocate funding to the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) through regular and contingency funding.
Date: January 28, 2015
Creator: Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Estimated Allocations

Description: This report discusses the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). This report contains two tables that show estimated LIHEAP allocations to the states. Table 1 shows state allocations at various levels: (1) the amount appropriated for FY2006, (2) the amount appropriated for FY2007, (3) the amount appropriated in FY2008, and (4) estimated state allocations based on the amount requested by the President for FY2009. Table 2 shows estimated state allocations at other hypothetical appropriations increments.
Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department