Congressional Research Service Reports - 656 Matching Results

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The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects

Description: The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program.
Date: April 6, 2001
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)

Description: This report provides background on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP), originally established in 1981 by Title XXVI of P.L. 97-35 and reauthorized several times. It is a block grant program under which the federal government gives states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and commonwealths, and Indian tribal organizations (referred to as grantees) annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households.
Date: April 18, 2001
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Costs and Agriculture

Description: U.S. agriculture is not an especially energy-intensive industry, but energy does account for about 6% of farm production costs. Additionally, farming is a highly mechanized industry and requires timely energy supplies at particular stages of the production cycle in order to achieve optimum yields. A substantial part of energy use by agriculture is indirect —embodied in the chemicals applied and machinery used on farms.
Date: April 24, 2001
Creator: Heykoop, Jerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations

Description: This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.; McCarthy, James E.; Fischer, John W.; Segarra, Alejandro E. & Kumins, Lawrence C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues

Description: Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, came back into play as oil and gas prices rose late in the year 2000. Also, the electricity shortages in California have brought a new emphasis to the role that energy efficiency and energy conservation may play in dampening electricity demand.
Date: July 27, 2001
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?

Description: Intuitively it seems obvious to most observers that increasing energy efficiency will ultimately reduce demand for an energy resource such as electricity. Paradoxically, economic theory suggests that this decrease in demand and subsequent decrease in cost of using the resource could cause a rebound in demand. A commonly cited example is an increase in the efficiency of home air conditioning which may reduce the resident’s monetary incentive to conserve. The resident may opt to change the thermostat setting to keep the amount he pays constant, but living at a more comfortable temperature. When actually measured this “Rebound Effect” is generally acknowledged to lower predicted reductions in electricity demand by 10%-40% depending on the device that is made more efficient.
Date: July 30, 2001
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy in 2001: Crisis Again?

Description: This report deals with changes in the national energy picture since the early 1990s, when Congress last dealt at length with energy policy. It reviews the problem areas and discusses differing views on how to deal with the energy situation in the long run. A summary of some current legislative initiatives is also given.
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: The Next Chapter

Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR.
Date: August 1, 2001
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A. & Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: Is CAFE Up to Standards?

Description: One of the least controversial provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-163) established corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new passenger cars. This report presents a brief background and analysis regarding the price of crude oil that brought into sharp focus the fuel inefficiency of U.S. automobiles. The report also discusses the previous issues and the most recent developments regarding CAFE.
Date: August 3, 2001
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate

Description: The Bush Administration issued its plan for a national energy policy on May 16, 2001. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). Bills reported by several House committees (H.R. 2436, H.R. 2460, H.R. 2511, and H.R. 2587) were combined in a single bill, H.R. 4, passed by the House, August 1, 2001. The bill includes provisions that would require a reduction in light-duty truck and SUV fuel consumption, and would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to leasing.
Date: August 13, 2001
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bush Energy Policy: Overview of Major Proposals and Legislative Action

Description: The Bush Administration outlined its proposals for addressing the nation’s energy problems in May 2001 with a 170-page report by the National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPD) titled National Energy Policy (NEP). In June, the President transmitted to Congress a summation of the report’s concepts and strategies that call for legislative action.
Date: August 22, 2001
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L. & Holt, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Tax Policy

Description: President Bush has issued a comprehensive energy policy initiative, which includes limited energy tax measures; the Administration has criticized such measures as being inconsistent with its free market philosophy. Several of the issues that drove energy policy and energy tax policy during the 106th Congress are extant: 1) tax incentives to increase the supply of oil and gas; 2) energy tax issues relating to energy conservation and energy efficiency; 3) energy tax issues relating to alternative fuels; 4) energy taxes/subsidies and residential energy costs; and 5) issues relating to electricity restructuring. In addition, there are certain energy tax provisions that are either expiring or are time-sensitive that the 107th Congress may choose to take action on.
Date: August 24, 2001
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Description: The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House.
Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: Abel, Amy & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Energy's Tritium Production Program

Description: Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used to enhance the explosive yield of every thermonuclear weapon. Tritium has a radioactive decay rate of 5.5% per year and has not been produced in this country for weapons purposes since 1988. To compensate for decay losses, tritium levels in the existing stockpile are being maintained by recycling and reprocessing it from dismantled nuclear weapons. To maintain the nuclear weapons stockpile at the level called for in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II (not yet in force), however, a new tritium source would be needed by the year 2011. If the START I stockpile levels remain the target, as is now the case, tritium production would be needed by 2005.
Date: November 8, 2001
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation. The DOE program is implemented in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Native American Tribes. It weatherizes an average of 70,000 dwellings per year. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption and lower their fuel bills. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children.
Date: November 14, 2001
Creator: Butler, Alice D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department