Congressional Research Service Reports - 778 Matching Results

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National Flood Insurance Borrowing Authority
This report evaluates the National Flood Insurance Program's (NFIP's) borrowing authority to receive loans from the U.S. Department of the Treasury -- particularly in the context of major floods -- and discusses the current financial situation of the NFIP as it pays claims from Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.
Natural Disasters of 2017: Congressional Considerations Related to FEMA Assistance
This report provides a short overview of issues Congress may consider in its oversight of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) federal assistance during the 2017 hurricane season (e.g., Harvey, Irma, and Maria) and other disasters (e.g., fires in California).
Supplemental Appropriations and the 2017 Hurricane Season
This report provides tables listing all the bills, departments, and programs which received supplemental funding related to disaster relief after the 2017 hurricane season and wildfires in California.
What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses
This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by December 8, 2017, and was allowed to lapse.
What Happens if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Lapses?
This report provides a short overview of what would happen if the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) were not to be reauthorized by January 19, 2018, and was allowed to lapse.
21st Century Flood Reform Act (H.R. 2874): Reforming the National Flood Insurance Program
This report outlines the provisions of the 21st Century Flood Reform Act which was passed on Nov. 14, 2017. The act reauthorizes the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and revises regulations regarding insurance coverage standards.
FEMA's Firefighter Assistance Grants: Reauthorization or Sunset?
This report discuses FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program (AFG) and the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response program (SAFER) and the reauthorization process in Congress. Unless legislation is passed by both the House and Senate by January 8, 2018, sunset provisions will come into effect for the programs.
Floodplain Management and Flood Resilience: Current Policy and Considerations for Congress
This report describes presidential direction for federal floodplain management and presents considerations for Congress.
Flood-Risk Reduction and Resilience: Federal Assistance and Programs
This report provides an overview of flood assistance programs and the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) related mitigation incentives; it also raises flood-related policy considerations associated with federal programs and practices.
Natural Disasters of 2017: Congressional Considerations Related to FEMA Assistance
This report provides a short overview of issues Congress may consider in its oversight of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) federal assistance during the 2017 hurricane season (e.g., Harvey, Irma, and Maria) and other disasters (e.g., fires in California).
United States Fire Administration: An Overview
This report discuses the United States Fire Administration (USFA) and their funding for fiscal year 2017 in comparison with recent years. The Administration's FY2017 budget proposed $42.3 million for USFA, a 3.8% decrease from the FY2016 level.
Wildfire Management Funding: Background, Issues, and Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the accounts that fund wildfire management activities and historical wildfire management appropriations data, as well as information on FY2018 appropriations. The Administration requested a combined $3.72 billion in FY2018, a 12% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels. On September 14, 2017, the Housed passed H.R. 3354, an omnibus measure covering all 12 appropriations bills, including the FY2018 Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies bill. This bill would provide $3.85 billion combined for wildfire purposes, an 8% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels and 3% above the Administration's requested levels.
Comprehensive Energy Planning for Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands
This report discusses the electric power grid of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands which were mainly destroyed by Hurricanes Irma and Maria with Puerto Rico being the hardest hit power grid. The report mainly concerns previous and current efforts to create long-term comprehensive energy plans for insular areas such as Puerto Rico and some of the challenges encountered in doing so.
Volcano and Landslide Provisions in Title X of S. 1460, the Energy and Natural Resources Act of 2017
This report discusses a proposed volcano early warning system and a landslide hazards reduction program that would both be administered by the USGS. Provisions of the law that would create the system and volcanoes on the high priority watch-list are described.
Private Flood Insurance and the National Flood Insurance Program
This report discuses the National Flood Insurance Program and private flood insurance which meets federal guidelines in Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA). Related legislation in the 115th Congress and options for privatizing flood insurance are also discussed.
Puerto Rico and Electric Power Restoration from Hurricane Maria
This report discusses the mass power outage in Puerto Rico from Hurricane Maria and challenges and efforts to get repair work under way. As of October 3, 2017 only 5.4 % of customers had their power back from the storm which it on September 20, 2017.
The U.S. Tsunami Program Reauthorization in P.L. 115-25: Section-by-Section Comparison to P.L. 109-479, Title VIIII
This report compares the enacted legislation text of the Tsunami Warning, Education, and Research Act of 2017 with P.L. 109-479, Title VIII, section by section, with brief comments on selected comparisons about how changes in P.L. 115-25, Title V, affect P.L. 109-479, Title VIII, and the authorized tsunami activities.
Introduction to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms.
Hurricanes and Electricity Infrastructure Hardening
This report discusses the measures undertaken by electric utilities to prevent or mitigate power outages resulting from severe weather events. Power lines and transformers used to provide electricity to customers are particularly susceptible to damage due to their exposure to the elements. The loss of life and extensive damage seen so far in the 2017 hurricane season has refocused the attention of Congress on the destructive potential of such storms. High winds, rain, and coastal surges can combine to create floods which exacerbate damage from hurricanes.
EPA's Role in Emergency Planning and Notification at Chemical Facilities
This report reviews the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) authorities regarding risk management, emergency planning, and release notification, among others, at chemical facilities. In doing so, it describes the statutory authorities--and makes note of some of the more prominent, subsequent regulations--as provided by the following: facility risk management planning requirements under Section 112(r)(7) of the Clean Air Act (CAA); emergency planning notification requirements under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA); emergency release notification requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); duties of the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, known as the Chemical Safety Board (CSB), under Section 112(r)(6) of the CAA; and toxic release inventory reporting requirements under EPCRA.
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program which is made up of four agencies (FEMA, The National Science Foundation, USGS, and National Institute of Standards and Technology) who are responsible for monitoring, reporting, and studying earthquakes and increasing resiliency to earthquakes through means such as stronger infrastructure, early warning systems, and recovery plans.
FirstNet's Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Moves Forward
This report discusses FirstNet's announcement of a partnership with AT&T to build a dedicated wireless broadband network for use by public safety agencies which will allow first responders during an emergency to share information with other public safety departments and have a dedicated internet connection for emergency communication.
Floodplain Management and Flood Resilience: Current Policy and Considerations for Congress
This report describes presidential direction to federal agencies on floodplain management and flood resilience and presents considerations for Congress.
Federal Disaster Assistance: The National Flood Insurance Program and Other Federal Disaster Assistance Programs Available to Individuals and Households After a Flood
This report provides an overview of the government assistance available to individuals and households following a flood and provides links to more comprehensive guidance on both flood insurance and disaster assistance.
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities for Emergency Situations
This report discusses special flexibility and hiring options for federal employees after disasters that are issued by the Department of Personnel Management (OPM). Most recently these options have been offered to those effected by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. The various options for employees using the program are listed and described in a tabular format.
Education-Related Regulatory Flexibilities, Waivers, and Federal Assistance in Response to Disasters and National Emergencies
This report is intended to inform Congress of existing statutory and regulatory provisions that may aid in responding to future disasters and national emergencies that may affect the provision of or access to education and highlight the actions of previous Congresses to provide additional recovery assistance. This report reflects the most recently available guidance, as of the date of publication, related to education-related disaster response and flexibilities. It will be updated should new or additional statutes be enacted or guidance be issued.
Implementation Date Nears for HHS Emergency Preparedness (EP) Rule
This report discusses the new emergency preparedness rules for organizations which participate in the Medicaid and Medicare programs that will be required to be in place by November 16, 2017.
Puerto Rico and Electric Power Restoration from Hurricane Maria
This report discusses efforts to restore power in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria decimated the island's electricity infrastructure. Challenges in power restoration due to the extent of the damage, supply deliveries, timing of the storm after Hurricane Harvey and Irma, and the electric company's financial crisis along with recommendations for strengthening the electric system are discussed.
Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies
This report provides information to aid policymakers as they navigate the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points; it describes the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The report also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal financial assistance following disasters, as well as the policies the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
Disaster Debris Management: Requirements, Challenges, and Federal Agency Roles
This report focuses on the requirements applicable to disaster debris management and the challenges that communities face when attempting to manage it both quickly and safely. This report also provides an overview of the types of support provided by FEMA, the Corps, and EPA with respect to disaster debris removal. A discussion of the programs or statutory authorities under which that support may be provided is beyond the scope of this report. There are a number of conditions under which federal agencies may support communities with disaster debris removal. With respect to FEMA's involvement in debris removal assistance, this report focuses on support that may be provided after the President declares the incident to involve a "major disaster" under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act, P.L. 93-288, as amended).
Introduction to FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report provides introductory information on key components of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), ranging from floodplain mapping to the standard flood insurance forms.
Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism
This report provides an overview of emergency and major disaster declarations and explains how they might be used in the aftermath of a terrorist incident that does not involve a fire or an explosion, such as high casualty mass shootings or chemical gas attacks. This report also provides an overview of Stafford Act assistance provided for past terrorist incidents.
Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies
This report provides information to aid policymakers as they navigate the many levels of responsibility, and numerous policy pressure points that occur after a disaster. It describes the laws and administrative policies governing the disaster response and recovery process. The report also reviews the legislative framework that exists for providing federal financial assistance following disasters, as well as the policies the executive branch employs to provide supplemental help to state, tribal, and local governments during time of disasters.
Federal Disaster Assistance Response and Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report is designed to assist Members of Congress and their staff as they address the needs of their states, communities, and constituents after a disaster. It includes a summary of federal programs that provide federal disaster assistance to individual survivors, states, territories, local governments, and nongovernmental entities following a natural or man-made disaster.
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
This report describes the Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster and information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits.
FEMA Disaster Housing: The Individuals and Households Program-Implementation and Potential Issues for Congress
This report explains the traditional approach for temporary housing through the IHP program following a disaster, how it is implemented, and considers if the current policy choices are equitable for disaster victims. This report will review those expenditures and provide information on the relative costs, and applications of, several categories of assistance. As a part of this examination, the report looks at other forms of housing repair assistance such as the Small Business Administration (SBA) Disaster Loan Program for homeowners as well as assistance that is provided, in some instances, through the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Community Development Block Grant (CDBG-DR) program.
Major Disaster Declarations for Snow Assistance and Severe Winter Storms: An Overview
This report describes snow assistance and assistance for severe winter storms, including the declaration process, the criteria used to make eligibility determinations, and the types of assistance that are provided after the President has issued a major disaster declaration for the incident. This report also provides historical data on winter incidents since 2009 including obligations for the incidents from FEMA's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). The DRF is the main account used to fund a wide variety of programs, grants, and other forms of emergency and disaster assistance to states, local governments, certain nonprofit entities, and families and individuals affected by disasters.
Private Flood Insurance in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report briefly discusses federal law regarding flood insurance. By law or regulation, federal agencies, federally-regulated lending institutions, and government-sponsored enterprises must require certain property owners to purchase flood insurance as a condition of any mortgage that these entities make, guarantee, or purchase.
Forest Fire/Wildfire Protection
This report provides historical background on wildfires, and describes concerns about the wildland-urban interface and about forest and rangeland health. It discusses fuel management, fire control, and fire effects and also examines federal, state, and landowner roles and responsibilities in protecting lands and resources from wildfires. The report concludes by discussing current issues for federal wildfire management.
Emergency Relief for Disaster-Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in Washington State in 2013). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance, and then addresses eligibility issues and program operation.
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits, which are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state's UC agency.
Stafford Act Assistance and Acts of Terrorism
This report provides a brief overview of Stafford Act declarations under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act and the types of assistance they could authorize in response to terrorist incidents. This report also provides examples of Stafford Act declarations that have been issued for previous terrorist attacks.
Green Infrastructure and Issues in Managing Urban Stormwater
This report discusses the issue of stormwater, or runoff, which is considered largely a problem of excess rainwater or snowmelt impacting communities. Prevailing engineering practices were to move stormwater away from cities as rapidly as possible to avoid potential damages from flooding. More recently, these practices have evolved and come to recognize stormwater as a resource that, managed properly within communities, has multiple benefits.
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses a number of frequently asked questions about earthquake risk and highway system components, especially bridges. Earthquakes and related events, such as soil liquefaction, landslides, tsunamis, flooding, and fires, pose risks to highway infrastructure. Concerns about the U.S. highway system's seismic vulnerability stem from interest in protecting public safety, facilitating response and recovery efforts, and minimizing economic loss and social disruption.
Private Flood Insurance in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
This report briefly discusses federal law regarding flood insurance. By law or regulation, federal agencies, federally-regulated lending institutions, and government-sponsored enterprises must require certain property owners to purchase flood insurance as a condition of any mortgage that these entities make, guarantee, or purchase.
Federal Flood Risk Management Standard (FFRMS)
This report briefly discusses the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard (FFRMS), which is the principal mechanism for accomplishing the flood risk management policies established by President Obama in Executive Order (E.O.) 13690. The FFRMS is a flood resilience standard that is required for "federally funded projects."
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief
This report discusses the responsibility of four federal agencies for long-term earthquake risk reduction under the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). Congress has not introduced legislation in the 114th Congress that addresses the NEHRP program directly.
Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures.
DHS Appropriations FY2016: Protection, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery
This report is part of a suite of reports that discuss appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for FY2016. It specifically discusses appropriations for the components of DHS included in the third title of the homeland security appropriations bill--the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), the Office of Health Affairs (OHA), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses important state and local homeland security policy issues that the 109th Congress might address.