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Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards

Description: The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers.
Date: June 11, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Class Size Reduction Program: Background and Status

Description: This report provides an overview of the structure and status of the CSR program, the issues raised about the program, early reports on its implementation, and relevant legislative action by the 106th Congress. It also considers emerging results from the California class size reduction effort, the state effort most closely watched by proponents and opponents of the federal CSR program.
Date: July 6, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Description: The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs.
Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Head Start: Background and Funding

Description: This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The "E-Rate" Program and Controversies

Description: Passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-104) codified the long standing policy commitment to ensure universal service in the provision of telecommunications services. The 1996 Act also expanded the concept to include, among other principles, that elementary schools and classrooms, and libraries should have access to telecommunications services for educational purposes at discounted rates. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was tasked with implementing the universal provisions of the Act and on May 7, 1997, adopted its order detailing its guidelines.
Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Date: December 19, 2000
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education

Description: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts.
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Stedman, James B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Description: Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues

Description: This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress

Description: This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them.
Date: January 24, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C. & Stedman, James B.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bilingual Education: An Overview

Description: The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate.
Date: June 7, 2001
Creator: Osorio-O'Dea, Patricia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department