Congressional Research Service Reports - 242 Matching Results

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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect school aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent Supreme Court decisions, with particular attention to Zelman. It also summarizes the pending case of Davey v. Locke and other recent and ongoing state and lower federal court cases concerning vouchers.
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Metropolitan School Desegregation
No Description Available.
Prayer and Religion in the Public Schools: What Is, and Is Not, Permitted
No Description Available.
Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses
This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used.
School Prayer
No Description Available.
Sex Discrimination in Education: Title IX
No Description Available.
Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action
This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs.
Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants (Title II, Part A of the Higher Education Act): Overview and Reauthorization Issues
No Description Available.
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
No Description Available.
The School Prayer Controversy: Pro-Con Arguments
No Description Available.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Paperwork in Special Education
No Description Available.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by H.R. 1350, 108th Congress
No Description Available.
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell
This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell.
Education Funding Issues for FY89
Congress considers annually the funding level for all programs administered by U.S. Department of Education (ED). The debate in this process has focused on how much the Federal Government should spend on education , and what, if any, program changes might be necessary to achieve these levels.
Reading Instruction: New Federal Initiatives
No Description Available.
Federal Tax Benefits for Families' K-12 Education Expenses in the Context of School Choice
No Description Available.
Federal Tax Benefits for Families' K-12 Education Expenses in the Context of School Choice
No Description Available.
Federal Tax Benefits for Families' K-12 Education Expenses in the Context of School Choice
No Description Available.
National Security Education Program: Background and Issues
No Description Available.
Rural Education: Legislative Initiatives
No Description Available.
E-Rate for Schools: Background on Telecommunications Discounts Through the Universal Service Fund
No Description Available.
Military Recruitment Provisions Under the No Child Left Behind Act: A Legal Analysis
No Description Available.
Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases
This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Trio and GEAR UP Programs: Status and Issues
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act: Reauthorization and Appropriations
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
No Description Available.
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
No Description Available.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Current Funding Trends
No Description Available.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Issues Regarding "Full Funding" of Part B Grants to States
No Description Available.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
No Description Available.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): State Grant Formulas
No Description Available.
Concurrent Enrollment Programs
Initiated in part as a proposal to reform U.S. high schools, concurrent enrollment programs enable high school aged students to take college level course work and receive college credit while enrolled in high school. Concurrent enrollment programs can be best described as a secondary/postsecondary school hybrid. This report provides a brief history of these programs and a description of the different types of programs, including participation data.
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description Available.
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals in the 106th Congress
No Description Available.
The Federal Migrant Education Program as Amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
No Description Available.
Student Drug Testing: Constitutional Issues
No Description Available.
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description Available.
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi.
School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
No Description Available.
Technology Challenge Programs in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
No Description Available.
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions
Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D).
Elementary and Secondary Education: Accountability and Flexibility in Federal Aid Proposals
The 107th Congress is considering proposals to amend the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Much of the debate over these proposals has been focused on issues related to state and local accountability for, and flexibility in the use of, federal aid funds. Current federal elementary and secondary education assistance programs have a broad range of accountability requirements, including: targeting of resources on specific “high need” pupil groups, localities, or schools; limitations on the authorized uses of funds; fiscal accountability requirements, such as maintenance of effort; procedural requirements, such as parental participation or equitable treatment of pupils attending non-public schools; staff qualifications; reporting; outcome; and evaluation requirements.