Congressional Research Service Reports - 242 Matching Results

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Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government

Description: This report describes Internet resources on internships, fellowships, and work experience programs within the federal government. It is intended as a selective guide for students of all levels: high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. This report will be updated annually.
Date: January 29, 2007
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Date: December 8, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Description: Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees.
Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

Description: This report examines various issues pertaining to foreign students in the United States. Since the Immigration Act of 1924, the United States has expressly permitted foreign students to study in U.S. institutions. Most foreign students are at least 18 years old and are enrolled in higher education programs. Foreign students are generally considered to enrich cultural diversity of the educational experience for U.S. residents as well as enhance the reputation of U.S. universities as world-class institutions. Concerns have arisen in recent years that have caused Congress to take a new look at the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) provisions that govern their admission.
Date: October 11, 2006
Creator: Haddal, Chad C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures and the Impact Aid Program for Education

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Impact Aid program, including the calculation of Impact Aid payments to local educational agencies (LEA), and an overview of the Base Realignment and Closing (BRAC) recommendations. This is followed by a discussion of the potential effects of the BRAC recommendations on LEAs that will both lose and gain students as a result of the changes. The report concludes with a brief discussion of actions that have been taken by LEAs in anticipation of large influxes of federally connected students.
Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act

Description: This report is intended to provide an overview of the Adequate Yearly Process (AYP) concept and several related issues, a description of the AYP provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act, and an analysis of the implementation of these provisions by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the states. It will be updated when major administrative actions are taken by ED, or substantial new data on state implementation become available.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

School Choice: Current Legislation

Description: This report provides an overview of current local, state, and federal policies and programs that support school choice and identifies and summarizes recent federal school choice legislation.
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Smole, David P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress and Program Evaluation: An Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Related Issues

Description: This report discusses what RCTs are and identifies a number of issues regarding RCTs that might arise when Congress considers making program evaluation policy. For example, in the 109th Congress, Section 3 of S. 1934 (as introduced) would establish a priority for RCTs when evaluating offender reentry demonstration projects; Section 114 of S. 667 (Senate Finance Committee-reported bill) would require RCTs for demonstration projects for low-income families; and Section 5 of S. 1129 (as introduced) would call for RCTs for projects and policies of multilateral development banks. Issues regarding RCTs could also arise when actors in the policy process present specific program evaluations to Congress (e.g., in the President’s budget proposals) to influence Congress’s views and decision making. For many reasons, evaluations often merit scrutiny and care in interpretation.
Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.; Nuñez-Neto, Blas & Williams, Erin D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks

Description: Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East.
Date: March 7, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Funding for Public Charter School Facilities: Federal Policy Under the ESEA

Description: This report examines the federal role in providing funding for public charter school facilities. Under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), federal support for public charter school facilities is authorized under Title V-B -- Public Charter Schools. It includes background on the topic and on current facilities, as well as relevant federal policy and federal programs authorized under the Internal Revenue Code.
Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Smole, David P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Base Closures and the Impact Aid Program for Education

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the Impact Aid program, including the calculation of Impact Aid payments to local educational agencies (LEA), and an overview of the Base Realignment and Closing (BRAC) recommendations. This is followed by a discussion of the potential effects of the BRAC recommendations on LEAs that will both lose and gain students as a result of the changes. The report concludes with a brief discussion of actions that have been taken by LEAs in anticipation of large influxes of federally connected students.
Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education-Related Hurricane Relief: Legislative Action

Description: This report provides an overview of the waivers that have been granted by the Department of Education in response to the Gulf Coast hurricanes; three public laws that have been enacted, specifically to provide financial relief to postsecondary students and institutions of higher education; and education-related hurricane relief provisions included in FY2006 defense appropriations. For K-12 education, the latter provides several waivers of existing requirements and appropriates $1.4 billion, primarily to restart school operations in affected areas and to provide emergency impact aid grants to schools serving displaced students. For higher education, P.L. 109-148 provides waivers of existing requirements and makes available $200 million to provide assistance under various HEA programs.
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Skinner, Rebecca R.; Apling, Richard N.; Irwin, Paul M.; Smole, David P.; Mercer, Charmaine & Kuenzi, Jeffrey J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)

Description: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)1 and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)2 are two of the most significant federal statutes relating to education. Although both have the goal of improving education — IDEA for children with disabilities and NCLBA for all children — the two statutes take different approaches. IDEA focuses on the individual child, with an emphasis on developing an individualized education program (IEP) and specific services for children with disabilities, while NCLBA takes a more global view, with an emphasis on closing gaps in achievement test scores and raising the aggregate scores of all demographic groups of pupils to specific levels. The relationship of IDEA and NCLBA has become of increasing significance because of the recent reauthorization of IDEA and guidance and regulations from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on NCLBA issues related to the education of children with disabilities. This report will provide a brief overview of IDEA and NCLBA, a discussion of the intersection of selected provisions of IDEA and NCLBA, and a discussion of ED regulations and guidance regarding IDEA and NCLBA. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues related to the interaction of IDEA and NCLBA.
Date: December 22, 2005
Creator: Apling, Richard N. & Jones, Nancy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Interactions with Selected Provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)

Description: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) are two of the most significant federal statutes relating to education. Although both have the goal of improving education — IDEA for children with disabilities and NCLBA for all children — the two statutes take different approaches. IDEA focuses on the individual child, with an emphasis on developing an individualized education program (IEP) and specific services for children with disabilities, while NCLBA takes a more global view, with an emphasis on closing gaps in achievement test scores and raising the aggregate scores of all demographic groups of pupils to specific levels. The relationship of IDEA and NCLBA has become of increasing significance because of this recent reauthorization of IDEA and guidance and regulations from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on NCLBA issues related to the education of children with disabilities. This report will provide a brief overview of IDEA and NCLBA, a discussion of the intersection of selected provisions of IDEA and NCLBA, and a discussion of ED regulations and guidance regarding IDEA and NCLBA. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues related to the interaction of IDEA and NCLBA.
Date: December 22, 2005
Creator: Apling, Richard N. & Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Schaffer v. Weast

Description: This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which is the main federal program concerning the education of children with disabilities. It authorizes state and local aid for special education and related services for children with disabilities and contains detailed due process protections for children with disabilities and their parents. On December 3, 2004, President Bush signed “The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Improvement Act” (P.L. 108-446), a major reauthorization and revision of IDEA. One issue which was not addressed in the reauthorization was whether the parents or the school bears the burden of proof in special education due process hearings. On November 14, 2005, the Supreme Court resolved a split in the circuits and held that the burden of proof in an administrative hearing challenging a child’s individualized education program is on the party seeking the relief.
Date: December 21, 2005
Creator: Jones, Nancy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department