Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED

501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Description: This report discusses 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations, including the requirements necessary to maintain 501(c)(4) status and the requirements for annual reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and Federal Election Commission.
Date: May 17, 2013
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Whitaker, L. P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

527 Organizations and Campaign Activity: Timing of Reporting Requirements under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Description: This report compares the timing of election activity reporting requirements under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) and Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA), and discusses H.R. 1204, which would amend the timing of the IRC’s reporting requirements.
Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Lunder, Erika & Whitaker, L. Paige
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

Description: This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome.
Date: October 5, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan.
Date: February 27, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai, to address corruption within the Afghan government. The report also includes discussion of election fraud and corruption in Afghanistan.
Date: December 12, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Description: Report that covers concerns and issues relating to governance, elections, election fraud/nepotism, human rights, and Afghan culture in Afghanistan. It discusses the pros and cons of U.S.A. intervention in the shaping of these endeavors.
Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argentina's 2015 Presidential Election

Description: This report briefly discusses the Argentinian Presidential election, held on October 25, 2015. The close results set up a second round on November 22, 2015, between Daniel Scioli and Mauricio Macri.
Date: October 26, 2015
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Political Telephone Calls ("Robo Calls") in Federal Campaigns: Overview and Policy Options

Description: This report provides an overview of how automated political calls are used in federal campaigns, including attention to recent spending estimates and polling data regarding these calls. The report also discusses legislation that would affect the calls, with descriptions of various policy options and how the options or their regulation may be related to campaign finance law and to the First Amendment.
Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S. & Ruane, Kathleen Ann
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Average Years of Service for Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 1st - 111th Congresses

Description: The average tenure of Members of the Senate and House of Representatives at the beginning of each Congress has varied substantially since 1789. The purpose of this report is to provide a Congress-by-Congress summary of the average years of service for Senators and Representatives for the First through the 111th Congresses. The report contains a brief summary of some of the explanations by political scientists and others for the various changes in the average years of service.
Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: Glassman, Matthew Eric & Hemlin, Erin
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Description: This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate).
Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Business and Labor Spending in U.S. Elections

Description: Federal election law has long prohibited corporate and union spending in federal elections, but distinctions in statutes and judicial rulings have opened avenues by which these groups have been able to spend money in the electoral process. Business groups make particular use of political action committee (PAC) donations to candidates and soft money donations to parties. Unions made prominent use of issue advocacy in 1996, but labor’s political strength lies in exempt activity communications with members. This report explains these tools and their use in today’s elections.
Date: October 28, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Description: This report provides a summary of the issues presented by 12 groups of appellants in their jurisdictional statements in 2003. Shortly after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155 (H.R. 2356, 107th Cong.) was enacted in March 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform legislation), Senator Mitch McConnell and others filed suit in U.S. District Court for D.C. against the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) arguing that provisions of the law are unconstitutional. Ultimately, eleven suits challenging BCRA were brought by more than 80 plaintiffs and consolidated into one lead case, McConnell v. FEC. On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, No. 02-CV-0582 striking down some key provisions of the law as unconstitutional, but on May 19, it issued a stay of its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision. (For information about the decision, see CRS Report RS21511, Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of McConnell v. FEC.) Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court's decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court, which scheduled oral argument for September 8, 2003.
Date: June 20, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance Law: The Supreme Court Upholds Key Provisions of BCRA in McConnell v. FEC

Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court's decision in McConnell v. FEC. The court upheld against facial constitutional challenges key portions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), (P.L. 107-155, commonly known as the McCain-Feingold or Shays-Meehan campaign finance reform law).
Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance Policy After Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: Issues and Options for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview of selected campaign finance policy options that may be relevant to the ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. It also briefly comments on how Citizens United might affect political advertising. A complete understanding of how Citizens United will affect the campaign and policy environments is likely to be unavailable until at least the conclusion of the 2010 election cycle.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Date: January 29, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Finance: Potential Legislative and Policy Issues for the 111th Congress

Description: This report discusses selected campaign finance policy issues that may receive attention during the 111th Congress such as the electronic filing of senate campaign finance reports, bundling, hybrid advertising, joint fundraising committees, 527 Organizations and more.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Garret, R. S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing

Description: Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system. This report discusses the debate regarding campaign finance regulation.
Date: October 16, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing

Description: This report discusses various issues regarding campaign finance law and potential options for policy responses.
Date: December 17, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Date: December 13, 2004
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Campaign Financing: Highlights and Chronology of Current Federal Law

Description: This report summarizes major provisions of federal law and offers a chronology of key legislative and judicial actions which govern financial activity of federal election campaigns. The laws are based on two principal statutes: the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971, as amended in 1974, 1976, 1979, and 2002, and the Revenue Act of 1971.
Date: January 24, 2003
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Candidates, Groups, and the Campaign Finance Environment

Description: This report briefly discusses the current campaign finance environment and the implications of changes to campaign finance policy over the past several decades.
Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Garrett, R. S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Leaders Quash Hong Kong's Hopes for Democratic Election Reforms

Description: This report briefly discusses a recent decision by China's National People's Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) that places strict conditions on any possible electoral reforms in Hong Kong. The report covers the decision, Hong Kong's response, and options for Congress.
Date: September 5, 2014
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

Description: This report first discusses the key holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court's extension of Buckley in several subsequent cases, evaluating them in various regulatory contexts: contribution limits, expenditure limits, disclosure requirements, and political party soft money and electioneering communication restrictions.
Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department