Congressional Research Service Reports - 918 Matching Results

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Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy

Description: The rate of long-term economic growth is the salient measure of the nation's ability to steady advance its material living standard. The pace of long-term economic growth is likely to be a center of attention in the decades just ahead, as the U.S. economy confronts the need to undertake unprecedentedly large generational transfers of income to pay for the retirement of the huge baby-boom generation as well as large transfers to the rest of the world to meet the debt service costs of the United States' large and still growing foreign debt.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Description: This report provides an overview of the economics of international trade that may be helpful for consideration of many recurring international economic policy issues. It is intended as a general explanation of mainstream economic principles that may be considered in gauging the economic significance of trade issues as well as the trade-offs inherent in many policy choices. This report provides a brief overview of the economic arguments for free trade, common arguments for trade barriers, and the cause and economic significance of persistent large trade deficits.
Date: May 22, 2006
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Description: The Central American nation of Panama has made notable political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted General Manuel Noriega from power. Under the current administration of President Martin Torrijos, the most significant challenges have included dealing with the funding deficits of the country's social security fund; developing plans for the expansion of the Panama Canal; and combating unemployment and poverty. The United States has close relations with Panama. The current bilateral relationship is characterized by extensive cooperation on counternarcotics efforts, assistance to help Panama assure the security of the Canal and its border with Colombia, and negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement.
Date: September 22, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

Description: The country of Panama has made significant political and economic progress since the 1989 U.S. military intervention that ousted the regime of General Manuel Noriega from power. The current President, Martin Torrijos, has faced significant challenges, including dealing with the funding deficits of the country's social security fund; developing plans for the expansion of the Panama Canal; and combating unemployment and poverty. The U.S. has close relations with Panama, and both countries currently cooperate on counternarcotics efforts, the security of the Panama Canal and the Panama-Colombia border, and negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement. This report describes all of the above; the aforementioned U.S.-Panamanian negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement is detailed in particular.
Date: May 24, 2006
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Description: Monetary policy can be defined broadly as any policy relating to the supply of money. Monetary policy can have important effects on aggregate demand and through it on real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, real foreign exchange rates, real interest rates, the composition of output, etc., all of which are short-term effects. Over the longer run, the major effect of monetary policy is on the rate of inflation. A growing money supply is important for the subsequent growth in money spending or aggregate demand. The Federal Reserve executes monetary policy by setting a target for an overnight interest rate called the federal funds rate. Changes in the federal funds rates affect primarily short-term interest rates, and through these changes, money spending.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Description: Monetary policy can be defined broadly as any policy relating to the supply of money. Monetary policy can have important effects on aggregate demand and through it on real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, real foreign exchange rates, real interest rates, the composition of output, etc., all of which are short-term effects. Over the longer run, the major effect of monetary policy is on the rate of inflation. A growing money supply is important for the subsequent growth in money spending or aggregate demand. The Federal Reserve executes monetary policy by setting a target for an overnight interest rate called the federal funds rate. Changes in the federal funds rates affect primarily short-term interest rates, and through these changes, money spending.
Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Description: U.S. real GDP growth has been positive for 18 consecutive quarters, and the economy is considered to be in an "expansion" phase. The rebound in payroll employment has been modest compared with past expansions. Other elements in the economic picture are promising: 1) A pick-up in output at the same time as employment is growing slowly means that productivity (or output per worker) is increasing; and 2) The inflation rate, measured by the CPI, rose 3.4% during 2005. The consensus among economists is that GDP will grow between 3.3% and 3.6% in 2006. The unemployment rate is expected to show little tendency to change. The inflation rate is expected to be higher than the rate that prevailed in 2005.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Makinen, Gail E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts

Description: U.S. real GDP growth has been positive for 18 consecutive quarters, and the economy is considered to be in an "expansion" phase. Other elements in the economic picture are promising: 1) a pick-up in output at the same time as employment is growing slowly means that productivity (or output per worker) is increasing; and 2) the inflation rate, measured by the CPI, rose 3.4$ during 2005, driven largely by rising energy prices. The consensus among economists is that GDP will grow between 3.3% and 3.5% in 2006.
Date: August 21, 2006
Creator: Makinen, Gail E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Description: This report provides an overview of the economics of international trade that may be helpful for consideration of many recurring international economic policy issues. It is intended as a general explanation of mainstream economic principles that may be considered in gauging the economic significance of trade issues as well as the trade-offs inherent in many policy choices. This report provides a brief interview of the economic arguments for free trade, common arguments for trade barriers, and the cause and economic significance of persistent large trade deficits.
Date: June 8, 2005
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)

Description: The last act of the 106th Congress was to pass an omnibus bill that included the Commodity Futures Modernization Act (H.R. 5660; P.L. 106-554), the most significant amendments to the regulation of derivatives trading in 25 years. Derivative financial instruments are those that gain or lose value as some underlying rate, price, or other economic variable changes. The 106th Congress approved an overhaul of derivatives regulation which codified the unregulated status of certain derivatives, permitted the exemption of other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), and permitted the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract/security hybrid based on the stocks of individual corporation.
Date: February 3, 2003
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade, Trade Barriers, and Trade Deficits: Implications for U.S. Economic Welfare

Description: This report provides an overview of the economics of international trade that may be helpful for consideration of many recurring international economic policy issues. It is intended as a general explanation of mainstream economic principles that may be considered in gauging the economic significance of trade issues as well as the trade-offs inherent in many policy choices. This report provides a brief overview of the economic arguments for free trade, common arguments for trade barriers, and the cause and economic significance of persistent large trade deficits.
Date: September 2, 2003
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Economics of the Federal Budget Surplus

Description: Fiscal 1998 marked the first year that total receipts exceeded outlays in the federal budget since 1969. Since then, the budget has been in surplus and official projections expect the budget to remain in surplus for the foreseeable future. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections indicate that the budget surpluses are expected to grow steadily over the next 10 years.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gasoline Price Increases: Federal and State Authority to Limit "Price Gouging"

Description: In the aftermath of last year’s hurricane season, questions arose regarding increased prices in the areas affected by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma and the effect that the damage caused by the hurricanes would have on prices, specifically gasoline prices, in other parts of the country. As gasoline prices have continued to rise in the months since, Congress has considered legislation addressing gasoline and oil prices that includes provisions related to price gouging. The House has recently passed two bills that include a federal prohibition on price gouging (H.R. 3893 and H.R. 5253). This report discusses state laws regarding price gouging, the role of the federal government in addressing rising gas prices, and selected federal legislative proposals specific to price gouging.
Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: Welborn, Angie A. & Flynn, Aaron M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources

Description: This report introduces selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. It includes telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source's contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them.
Date: February 13, 2003
Creator: Davis, Carol D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department